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Xanthophylls And Photosynthesis - legal-name …
Xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) are also found in zooxanthellae. Two xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin) play an important role in protecting symbiotic algae and coral hosts from excessive light energy. When light energy is sufficient enough to effect pH changes within the photosynthetic apparatus of zooxanthellae, diadinoxanthin is converted to diatoxanthin. This conversion shunts light energy away from photosynthesis. In darkness, the process reverses, and diatoxanthin becomes diadinoxanthin. Note that these xanthophylls both absorb some violet but most strongly blue wavelengths at ~450 - 490nm. See Figure 28.
Photosynthesis data were determined through use of a Walz Junior-PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated) fluorometer (Walz GmbH, Effeltrich, Germany). Walz's WinControl-3 software was programmed to measure the Yield of Photosystem II, and energy dissipation routes including NPQ (non-photosynthetic quenching by the xanthophyll cycle) and NO (quenching by other routes).
Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis
Light sources of different 'colors' produce different photosynthetic responses but these are not due to the quality of the light per se, but instead the absorption of violet and blue light by carotenoids (including -carotene,and xanthophylls diatoxanthin, diatoxanthin, and diadinoxanthin.) -carotene is known to transfer collected energy to chlorophyll and hence photosystem reaction centers, in an inefficient manner.
The Junior-PAM fluorometer exploits the relationships between competing processes for light energy. The energy can be used in photosynthesis, or dissipated as heat in a process called Non-Photochemical Quenching (NPQ) or Other Pathways (collectively called NO). Figure 34 details these relationships. In all cases, Photochemistry (called Yield of Photosystem II, or Y (II)), plus Y (NPQ) - where excessive energy is shunted away from the photosynthetic apparatus by the Xanthophyll Cycle) - and Y (NO), where energy is diverted in ways other than NPQ = 1. In short,
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Figure 28. These xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin) are important photosynthesis regulators in zooxanthellae. They also absorb mostly violet and blue light. After Jeffrey et al., 1997.
This was done by separating the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotene and xanthophylls) from one another using paper chromatography.
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PAM Fluorometer: A device capable of monitoring chlorophyll fluorescence, and is capable of calculating the fate of absorbed light energy, either through photosynthesis or two other dissipation pathways (including NPQ: Non-Photochemical Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence by protective xanthophylls) or NO (dissipation by other pathways, including photoinhibition.) PAM stands for Pulse Amplitude Modulated light intensity. PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation): That visible light energy between 400 and 700nm. It is important to note that photosynthesis does not simply stop at wavelengths below 400nm - violet and some ultraviolet wavelengths can promote photosynthesis!
Photosynthetic Efficiencies of LEDs: Results of Short …
NPQ: Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, specifically shunting of energy away from photosynthesis by xanthophylls, mostly as a protective measure against excessive light energy. Considered to be a 'regulated' means of energy dissipation.
Photosynthesis Questions: Paper - 01 - GELI Question …
Chlorophyll is a complex molecule. Several modifications of chlorophyll occur among plants and other photosynthetic organisms. All photosynthetic organisms (plants, certain protistans, prochlorobacteria, and cyanobacteria) have chlorophyll a. Accessory pigments absorb energy that chlorophyll a does not absorb. Accessory pigments include chlorophyll b (also c, d, and e in algae and protistans), xanthophylls, and carotenoids (such as beta-carotene). Chlorophyll a absorbs its energy from the Violet-Blue and Reddish orange-Red wavelengths, and little from the intermediate (Green-Yellow-Orange) wavelengths.
Chlorophyta: The Green Algae - BiologyWise
Among these compounds, echinenone and canthaxantin are abundant in cyanobacteria are characteristic of cyanobacteria ().
Violaxanthin is an epoxidized derivative of antheraxanthin (hydroxylated cryptoxanthin) and forms with zeaxanthin the xanthophyll cycle that is said to protect the photosynthetic system of plants against damage by excess light.
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