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Open data from the Large Hadron Collider sparks new discovery
The derision was loud from Wrangham’s colleagues…until evidence of was found at in South Africa by using new tools and techniques. The chortling is subsiding somewhat and scientists are now looking for the faint evidence, and long-disputed evidence of 1.5-1.7 mya controlled fires is being reconsidered, although his hypothesis is still widely considered as being only "mildly compelling" at best. New tools may push back the control of fire to a time that matches Wrangham’s audacious hypothesis. Wrangham cited the Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis as partially supporting the Cooking Hypothesis, but , the energy to power the human brain may not have solely derived from cooked food’s energy benefits. Wrangham has cited numerous lines of evidence, one of which is a that has to find honeybee hives and smoke them out; the humans get the honey and the honeyguide gets the larvae and wax. According to recent molecular evidence, the evolutionary split of the honeyguide from its ancestors happened up to three mya, which supports the early-control-of-fire hypothesis. There is great controversy regarding these subjects, from recent findings that to scientists making arguments that to the social impacts of campfires. This section of this essay will probably be one of the first to be revised in future versions, as new evidence is adduced and new hypotheses are proposed.
In 1910, humanity’s greatest balance-of-payment disparity was between the UK and India, as India provided 60 million pounds to the UK, which was more than matched by British Commonwealth payments to the USA of about 80 million pounds. No other nation had a notable impact on international monetary exchanges. The single most telling statistic of the British pillage of India is that as the UK became Earth’s richest nation during its colonial heyday as it led the Industrial Revolution, per capita income in India did not increase between 1757 and 1947, and its . All imperial and colonial efforts were simply plunder operations. The , which was colonialism in everything but the name. The USA’s flag does not fly over Iraq today, but everybody knows who calls the shots. Once in a great while, even American soldiers , but they were always marginalized or silenced.
Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …
The other big event happened about 1.8-1.7 mya, when African stone tools took a leap in sophistication, and (also called Acheulean industry or ) appeared and lasted for more than a million years. The quintessential Acheulean tool is the , and the makers used bone, antler, and wood to shape the axes. Some argue that the axes were not really axes at all, , even including just the leftover core after flakes were removed. Some gigantic hand axes have been discovered that could not have been easily used by human hands, and may have been early status symbols. Not only were axes made, but also . There is almost no doubt among anthropologists that invented and developed them from Oldowan tools. The axes have a very distinctive shape and could even be called a product of craftsmanship, which reflected minds greatly advanced from today’s great apes.
A plausible series of events, when fire came first and Acheulean industry second, is that the that traveled to East and Southeast Asia did not have Acheulean tools, but the primitive Oldowan toolset, and . I consider it quite possible that early migrated from Africa (and maybe even an earlier protohuman, if the “” were descended from habilines or australopiths) wielding fire. Cooking came with it, and hundreds of thousands of years later, those that stayed home in cosmopolitan Africa invented a new level of technology, Acheulean tools, and that culture never made it to the remote corners of East Asia. Some have speculated that those East Asian used bamboo more than stone, which would not be preserved for study today, or that as they moved east they lost the art of making Acheulean tools. I think the likelier explanation is that they had Acheulean tools, which means that they left Africa before they were invented, but they brought fire with them, which was the essential technology.
Is the Sun driving ozone and changing the climate? « …
Several years before writing this essay, as I began studying for this essay in earnest, I happened upon a , believe it or not, which helped me crystallize this essay’s epochal approach. The was missing from the author’s account, as well as the , of course, but in a discussion of socio-technical development, the author listed four different “vectors” of technological development, which he described as: Discovery, Invention, Innovation, and Diffusion. They corresponded to scientific discoveries, creating inventions, marketing them, and people using them. I have witnessed organized suppression in each vector.
I have to give 1940s commentators credit; they understood the , and better than I often see it today. They understood that if there was an abundant source of energy, Utopia was possible. Socialists quickly understood that the "free energy" that nuclear energy could make possible would undermine capitalism, as the profit motive would be a poor one for denying prosperity to all of Earth's people, and would not be tolerated. One socialist tract argued that the soaring standard of living that abundant energy would make possible could ensure that no child on Earth would "carry the grime of poverty on his face and soul." Socialists also realized that atomic energy would be a disaster if controlled by military and capitalist interests. Other commentators disparaged the prosperity that nuclear energy would bring, as people would simply have too much time on their hands, which could "doom" civilization.
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Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits
The Andamans are members of a racial group called , which appear to be remnant populations of the original migration from Africa. They all survived in marginal environments where they subsisted as hunter-gatherers, while later agricultural immigrants dominated arable lands. About 50 kya, a few thousand years before the migration to Australia happened, the sea level was lower and the islands of , , and formed a contiguous peninsula today called . , Australia, and were also connected and formed a continent today called . Deep water lay between those two “lost continents,” and biologists drew lines between them that noted the distribution of animals and plants that did not cross open water. is farthest north, followed by , and is farthest south. Those lines mark the limits of migrations from Sundaland toward Sahul, which followed sea level changes. About 48-46 kya, behaviorally modern humans crossed the water in boats to Sahul, and the peoples of New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania largely lived in isolation until Europeans arrived. Those peoples have remnants in their DNA, which probably means that they interbred with them while driving them to extinction on Sundaland and Southeast Asia, before some migrated to Sahul. Aboriginal Australian isolation was almost certainly maintained in the way that Andaman Islanders did it: by killing strange peoples who came ashore. However, in 2012, a paper was published regarding evidence of contact about four kya with people probably from India, when the , , and some Indian DNA admixture were introduced into Australia, which seems related to a colonization of northern Australia by an immigrant population. More of those kinds of migrations of human DNA, technology, and domesticated species have yet to be discovered, and some may even be significant.
Authors: George Rajna Comments: 17 Pages
What human-agency skeptics have ignored or argued around are unique features of the megafauna that went extinct the humans that preyed on them, while they examined minutia. ever before humans arrived. As , African elephants help create the biomes they live in, as terraforming agents. They were far from idle browsers and grazers, but had outsized impacts on the vegetation, soils, and geological features such as water holes. Dinosaurs may have had similar biome impacts, and it was probably a feature of that large herbivore guild. Scientists have been finding plenty of evidence that vegetation changes that human-agency skeptics attribute to climate change may well be largely the of the guild’s disappearance, not a cause. Researchers in Africa have also discovered that changes wrought by elephants created biomes dependent on elephant management. When elephants disappeared, so did the biomes that they created, which is why smaller species could also disappear when the large herbivore guild vanished. Although Australia was the only non-Antarctic continent without proboscideans 50 kya, and its guilds were comprised of somewhat smaller animals, probably reflecting inherent differences between placental and marsupial mammals, Australia's large herbivores probably had similar biome impacts.
Find out information about radioactivity
As repeatedly seen in the historical era, if a new technology enabled great numbers of animals to be killed, hunters quickly adopted the practice of killing the most animals that they could and harvested only the choicest cuts, as with bison tongues in North America. The by American “pioneers.” When Indians obtained horses from Europeans, they too killed all the bison that they could, and stampeding them off cliffs was a common practice for thousands of years and accelerated when horses made the job easier. Some Indians used all parts of a bison, but that seemed a minority practice, particularly after horses made hunting far easier, and was probably economically mandated. Cultural differences between Plains tribes began disappearing with the radical changes that horses and firearms brought to bison hunting, and stealing horses from neighboring tribes became a predilection. Even today in 2015, fisherman procuring shark fins for soup just , which is driving shark species to extinction.
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