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How does oxygen come from water during photosynthesis?
In the earliest days of life on Earth, it had to solve the problems of how to reproduce, how to separate itself from its environment, how to acquire raw materials, and how to make the chemical reactions that it needed. But it was confined to those areas where it could take advantage of briefly available potential energy as . The earliest process of skimming energy from energy gradients to power life is called respiration. That earliest respiration is today called because there was virtually no free oxygen in the atmosphere or ocean in those early days. Respiration was life’s first energy cycle. A biological energy cycle begins by harvesting an energy gradient (usually by a proton crossing a membrane or, in photosynthesis, directly capturing photon energy), and the acquired energy powered chemical reactions. The cycle then proceeds in steps, and the reaction products of each step sequentially use a little more energy from the initial capture until the initial energy has been depleted and the cycle’s molecules are returned to their starting point and ready for a fresh influx of energy to repeat the cycle.
There is a cycle of oxygen just as there is a cycle of water. Oxygen is released in photosynthesis by land plants and ocean phytoplankton (mostly diatoms), and rises up in the atmosphere about 25-30 miles, where it is energized by a part of the ultraviolet spectrum of energy from the sun, producing ozone. Ozone is heavier than air and begins to descend. It immediately attaches itself to airborne particles if it contacts them, oxidizing them, cleaning the air. If it encounters water vapour, it can attach itself to it, forming hydrogen peroxide. Rain and snow both contain hydrogen peroxide naturally. That is why plants grow better from rain water than from irrigation.
Where does the carbon that is used in photosynthesis come from
What distinguishes diseased cells from healthy ones? All cells derive their energy from glucose, but healthy cells burn glucose in oxygen by oxidation, while unhealthy cells ferment glucose anaerobically, producing large amounts of lactic acid. Fermentation produces only 1/6 the energy of oxidation, so cancer cells are perpetually starving for energy, and consequently have huge appetites for sugar. This wasteful metabolism becomes self-sustaining and dominant unless the oxygen level is sharply increased. Healthy cells which have sufficient oxygen and nutrients manufacture an enzyme coating around them that protects them for invasion. These enzymes are catalase, reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. So long as a cell maintains this enzyme coating around itself, it is safe from invasion by viruses, and ozone cannot harm it. Oxygen-starved cells are unable to produce enough enzymes to fortify their cell wall and are thus more vulnerable to invasion by the always-present viruses. Disease microbes have no enzyme coating. When ozone is introduced into the area, it attacks microbes without a coating and diseased cells with deficient cell wall enzymes. It oxidizes them, allowing them to be cleared from the body.
I believe this will happen because when the light source is nearer to the plant more of the plants surface area is coming in to contact with the light from the desk lamp therefore more photosynthesis will occur which will mean more oxygen will be produced which will create more bubbles....
NOVA - Official Website | Illuminating Photosynthesis
. The chemical reaction by which plants produce complex food molecules (sugars) requires an energy input (i.e., from sunlight) to occur. In this reaction, carbon dioxide and water combine to form carbon-based organic molecules and release oxygen. (Boundary: Further details of the photosynthesis process are not taught at this grade level.)
Some bacteria use Photosystem I and some use Photosystem II. More than two bya, and maybe more than three bya, cyanobacteria used both, and a miraculous instance of innovation tied them together. were then used to strip electrons from water. Although the issue is still controversial regarding when it happened and how, that instance of cyanobacteria's using manganese to strip electrons from water is responsible for oxygenic photosynthesis. It seems that some enzymes that use manganese may have been "drafted" into forming the manganese cluster responsible for splitting water in oxygenic photosynthesis. Water is not an easy molecule to strip an electron from, a single cyanobacterium seems to have “stumbled” into it, and it probably happened only . Once an electron was stripped away from water in Photosystem I, then stripping away a proton (a hydrogen nucleus) essentially removed one hydrogen atom from the water molecule. That proton was then used to drive a “turbine” that manufactures ATP, and wonderful show how those protons drive that enzyme turbine (). Oxygen is a waste product of that innovative ATP factory.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8
Input - Light intensityis to be varied by increasing and decreasing
the distance from the light source to the plant
Output - The rate of photosynthesisis to be measured by counting the
bubbles of oxygen produced by the plant every two minutes, and
therefore finding the rate of photosynthesis
Control - The amount of water available to the Elodea will stay the
same level in the 400 cm3 beaker.
Free rate of photosynthesis Essays and Papers - …
Kirschvink noted that reappeared in the geological record during the possible Snowball Earth times, after vanishing about a billion years earlier. Kirschvink noted that iron cannot increase to levels where they would create BIFs if the global ocean was oxygenated. Kirschvink proposed that the sea ice not only killed the photosynthesizers, but it also separated the ocean from the atmosphere so that the global ocean became anoxic. Iron from volcanoes on the ocean floor would build up in solution during the , and during the greenhouse phase the oceans would become oxygenated and the iron would fall out in BIFs. Other geological evidence for the vacillating icehouse and greenhouse conditions was the formation of cap carbonates over the glacial till. It was a global phenomenon; wherever the Snowball Earth till was, cap carbonates were atop them. In geological circles, deposited during the past 100 million years are considered to be of tropical origin, so scientists think that the cap carbonates reflected a tropical environment. The fact of cap carbonates atop glacial till is one of the strongest pieces of evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Kirschvink finished his paper by noting that the eon of complex life came on the heels of the Snowball Earth, and scouring the oceans of life would have presented virgin oceans for the rapid spread of life in the greenhouse periods, and this could have initiated the evolutionary novelty that led to complex life.
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Good ozone (also called Stratospheric Ozone) occurs naturally in the upper Stratosphere. The stratosphere is the layer of space 6 to 30 miles above the earth's surface.
Where does good Ozone come from?
The air is full of gases reacting with each other, even though our eyes do not see. When UV light strikes (Oxygen) O2 molecules, they are split into two individual O atoms — O and O. When one of the O atoms combine with O2 molecule, ozone (O3) is created.
Even though Ozone is only a small part of the gases in this layer, it plays a vital role because it shields us from the sun's harmful UV rays. It is called Good Ozone, for obvious reasons—because it protects humans, life and animals on earth.
An Experiment to Investigate the Effect of Light …
There is also evidence that life itself can contribute to mass extinctions. When the eventually , organisms that could not survive or thrive around oxygen (called ) . When anoxic conditions appeared, particularly when existed, the anaerobes could abound once again, and when thrived, usually arising from ocean sediments, they . Since the ocean floor had already become anoxic, the seafloor was already a dead zone, so little harm was done there. The hydrogen sulfide became lethal when it rose in the and killed off surface life and then wafted into the air and near shore. But the greatest harm to life may have been inflicted when hydrogen sulfide eventually , which could have been the final blow to an already stressed ecosphere. That may seem a fanciful scenario, but there is evidence for it. There is fossil evidence of during the Permian extinction, as well as photosynthesizing anaerobic bacteria ( and ), which could have only thrived in sulfide-rich anoxic surface waters. Peter Ward made this key evidence for his , and he has implicated hydrogen sulfide events in most major mass extinctions. An important aspect of Ward’s Medea hypothesis work is that about 1,000 PPM of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which might be reached in this century if we keep burning fossil fuels, may artificially induce Canfield Oceans and result in . Those are not wild-eyed doomsday speculations, but logical outcomes of current trends and , proposed by leading scientists. Hundreds of already exist on Earth, which are primarily manmade. Even if those events are “only” 10% likely to happen in the next century, that we are flirting with them at all should make us shudder, for a few reasons, one of which is the awesome damage that it would inflict on the biosphere, including humanity, and another is that it is entirely preventable with the use of technologies .
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