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T1 - What Works for Students at Risk

In some RTI frameworks, Tier 3 includes special education services for students who have been formally identified as having a learning disability and have had an Individualized Education Plan developed for them. In other cases, schools design Tier 3 to be an intensive, focused intervention that may include students without disabilities. In some cases, Tier 3 is supplemental-provided in addition to Tier 1 and Tier 2 services. In other cases, particularly when the student's performance level is far below grade-level expectations, Tier 3 may be provided as a replacement to core classroom instruction. Tier 3 instruction is more intensive than Tier 2 because it is provided in smaller groups and with a more specific skills focus. (Vaughn, Wanzek, Murray, Scammacca, Linan-Thompson, & Woodruff, 2009). Whatever the format, all interventions provided in Tier 3 must be research based (Klingner, Sorrells, & Barrera, in press).

What Works for Students at Risk - Research Database, …

Introduction:
Operationalisation of realist methods can be challenging (Dalkin et al. 2015). Protocols and standards do exist in the literature to guide the process of realist informed research: Rycroft Malone et al (2012), Saul et al (2013), RAMESES (2013), Greenhalgh et al (2014) Blane et al (2015). However Realist methodologies are advocated for the exploration of complex interventions in a variety of subject areas and so are likely to require individually tailored approaches. This heterogeneity of process can affect the progress of novice realists, especially those who find themselves as doctoral students working more alone than is the norm in realist research.
Objectives: This poster illustrates the approaches taken by three doctoral students undertaking realist synthesis as part of a PhD.
The Projects:
Project 1 - The mobile clinical skills and simulation facility was unique in the UK at the time of its launch, and is now the subject of a PhD (realist synthesis and realist evaluation). Published literature was very limited, so the revelation that doing stakeholder interviews was not considered primary data and was indorsed as part of a realist synthesis was a pivotal point in understanding and addressing the way forward in a realist synthesis of an intervention which at first appeared to be theory blind.
Project 2 - Saul et al’s (2013) protocol for a rapid realist review (RRR) suggests a composition of essential team members. My RRR was undertaken as part of a PhD, therefore, instead of engaging a local reference group and expert panel throughout the RRR as Saul et al. (2013) suggest, guidance was sought from the PhD supervision team, who have a breadth of knowledge of care planning and realist methodology and thus fulfil the role of the local reference group and expert panel.
Project 3 – As a PhD student new to both realist methods, and the subject area, prevention of risk behaviour in adolescents, a large amount of time was spent submerged in the literature. Unfamiliarity with the specifics of the subject impacted on both retroductive theorizing, and application to ethics in order to carry out consultations with key stakeholders. A key issue in this was reaching an agreement on when consultation becomes primary data in relation to research governance. Addressing and resolving methodological issues is an ongoing process.
Discussion: Looking for a Realist review recipe is a natural yearning as a PhD student who is unfamiliar or uncertain about using this methodology. Three PhD students have undertaken different approaches to their realist studies modifying the standards, protocols and methods to find a bespoke way to explore their respective unique complex interventions with a realist lens. The acceptance of uncertainty and the importance of theorizing from a plethora of sources is fundamental for realist doctoral students.

What Works for Students at Risk: A Research Synthesis

Full-text (PDF) | What Works for Students at Risk: A Research Synthesis

(2004)
Authors:
Christenson, S. L., & Havsy, L. H.
The goals of this chapter in the book entitled Building Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning: What Does the Research Say? are a) to summarize the effect of family-school-peer influences on student engagement and school success, b) to describe Check & Connect, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention, and c) to offer recommendations for future research, practice, and policy to address the needs of students at risk for educational failure.

This meta-analysis synthesizes the research on the effects of interventions designed to improve mathematics achievement of students considered low achieving or at risk for failure. It examined the effects of experimental studies that used five categories of interventions, including providing ongoing feedback, peer tutoring, parent support, use of explicit instruction, and computer- assisted instruction.

What works for students at risk: A research synthesis.

What Works for Students at Risk: A Research Synthesis.

There is also a wealth of information available about what works in transition for youth with disabilities that is not contained in empirical research. This includes such items as students’ writings, chapters in books, narratives, and local and statewide practices. We want to capture some of this information as well. We will produce a written summary of selected items in our final project year.

We are producing four (research-based) syntheses in the context of transition for youth with disabilities: what works in , what works regarding (risk and resiliency), what works in , and a fourth piece representing “,” including families, educators, related service providers, and employers. Student perspectives will be represented in the academic outcomes, risk and resiliency, and secondary transition analyses. During the first project year, which began October 1, 2001, we have focused our efforts on developing operational and conceptual definitions for the research syntheses, and our inclusionary criteria for articles. We have also been obtaining our literature set, which includes approximately 520 project reports from 1984 to 1995 originally housed at the Transition Research Institute (TRI) at the University of Illinois. We have developed a protocol for systematic literature searching and information management, along with tools we will use to extract information from articles.

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A Synthesis of Research on What Works in High-Performing, ..

, , , and (2016)Operationalisation of realist synthesis as a PhD student; what works, for whom, and in what circumstances? In: Centre for the Advancement of Realist Evaluation and Synthesis (CARES) 2016, 03 - 05 Oct 2016, London, UK.

Dealing with Diversity: At-Risk Students - ASCD

Introduction:
Operationalisation of realist methods can be challenging (Dalkin et al. 2015). Protocols and standards do exist in the literature to guide the process of realist informed research: Rycroft Malone et al (2012), Saul et al (2013), RAMESES (2013), Greenhalgh et al (2014) Blane et al (2015). However Realist methodologies are advocated for the exploration of complex interventions in a variety of subject areas and so are likely to require individually tailored approaches. This heterogeneity of process can affect the progress of novice realists, especially those who find themselves as doctoral students working more alone than is the norm in realist research.
Objectives: This poster illustrates the approaches taken by three doctoral students undertaking realist synthesis as part of a PhD.
The Projects:
Project 1 - The mobile clinical skills and simulation facility was unique in the UK at the time of its launch, and is now the subject of a PhD (realist synthesis and realist evaluation). Published literature was very limited, so the revelation that doing stakeholder interviews was not considered primary data and was indorsed as part of a realist synthesis was a pivotal point in understanding and addressing the way forward in a realist synthesis of an intervention which at first appeared to be theory blind.
Project 2 - Saul et al’s (2013) protocol for a rapid realist review (RRR) suggests a composition of essential team members. My RRR was undertaken as part of a PhD, therefore, instead of engaging a local reference group and expert panel throughout the RRR as Saul et al. (2013) suggest, guidance was sought from the PhD supervision team, who have a breadth of knowledge of care planning and realist methodology and thus fulfil the role of the local reference group and expert panel.
Project 3 – As a PhD student new to both realist methods, and the subject area, prevention of risk behaviour in adolescents, a large amount of time was spent submerged in the literature. Unfamiliarity with the specifics of the subject impacted on both retroductive theorizing, and application to ethics in order to carry out consultations with key stakeholders. A key issue in this was reaching an agreement on when consultation becomes primary data in relation to research governance. Addressing and resolving methodological issues is an ongoing process.
Discussion: Looking for a Realist review recipe is a natural yearning as a PhD student who is unfamiliar or uncertain about using this methodology. Three PhD students have undertaken different approaches to their realist studies modifying the standards, protocols and methods to find a bespoke way to explore their respective unique complex interventions with a realist lens. The acceptance of uncertainty and the importance of theorizing from a plethora of sources is fundamental for realist doctoral students.

Class Size and Student Achievement: Research-Based …

(2008)
Geared toward educators, administrators, and policymakers, this guide provides recommendations that focus on reducing high school dropout rates. Strategies presented include identifying and advocating for at-risk students, implementing programs to improve behavior and social skills, and keeping students engaged in the school environment. The process for deriving the recommendations began by collecting and examining research studies that have evaluated the impacts of dropout prevention programs. This review relied heavily, but not exclusively, on the existing reviews of dropout prevention programs that meet the evidence standards of the What Works Clearinghouse.

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