Quick academic help
Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.
MECHANISM OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
The process of polymerization of amino acids to form a polypeptide is called as Translation. It is the second and final step of protein synthesis. The order into which the amino acids are arranged is defined by the bases in mRNA (messenger). Ribosome is the cellular factory responsible for the protein synthesis. The ribosome consists of structural RNAs and about 80 different . It is in inactive stage and exists as two subunits, one large and other small. The synthesis of begins when the small subunit encounters an mRNA. The ribosome also acts as a catalyst for the formation of bonds.
Transcription is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. This copy, called a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, leaves the cell nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it directs the synthesis of the protein, which it encodes. Here is a more complete definition of transcription:
Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes. In the cell cytoplasm, the ribosome reads the sequence of the mRNA in groups of three bases to assemble the protein. Here is a more complete definition of translation:
Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation
i.ρ-dependent Termination: In some prokaryotes, the termination of transcription is helped by a ρ (rho) protein that gets attached at the 5′ end of the newly synthesizing mRNA. The ρ then moves along the mRNA and induces the formation of hairpin loop near the 3′ end of mRNA due to the presence of inverted repeated sequences. This helps in the detachment of mRNA from the DNA (Fig. 8.9).
The process of synthesis of proteins from mRNA (translation of language of nucleic acids into the language of proteins) is called translation. There are 20 different types of amino acids, which constitute various proteins, and these amino acids themselves cannot recognize their respective codons in the mRNA. Different amino acids are carried by their specific tRNA molecules at the
site of protein synthesis (mRNA). There are about 55 types of tRNA molecules available in the cytoplasm, so that one amino acid may have more than one tRNAs.
Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Quiz - zeroBio
9. As the ribosome moves by two codons, next round of protein synthesis is initiated by the attachment of a new ribosome. Thus, at a time, a single mRNA is found to be attached with many ribosomes with their polypeptides of different length, (shortest polypeptide at the 5′ end of the mRNA and longest at the 3′ end), called polysomes.
Fig. 8.15 Peptide bond formation in growing polypeptide.
10. Ultimately, the A-site of ribosome is occupied by the termination codon (UAA,UAG or UGA) at the 3′ end of mRNA, which is not recognized by any tRNA. Thus, the termination of the protein synthesis is helped by the release factors RFl, RF2 and RF3 (in eukaryotes eRF1), which release the newly synthesized polypeptide chain from the P-site (Fig. 8.16).
The process of copying of the genetic information from one strand of DNA into RNA is termed as transcription. This is the first step required for synthesis. Transcription is also based on the complementarity of the strand. Also, only one strand of the DNA is converted into . One transcription unit consists of 3 regions: A promoter, the Structural Gene and a Terminator. The promoter is located towards the 5’ end and defines the template and coding strand. The terminator is towards the 3’ end defining the end of transcription process. The is transcribed in 5' to 3’ direction by polymerase.
Why choose our assistance?
As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.
Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.
We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.
We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.
Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.
We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.
nucleic acids & protein synthesis notes b1 - Biology …
DNA, messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomes, multiple enzymes, and amino acids are the various elements involved in the synthesis.
A protein comprises long chains of amino acids that are bonded together.
DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis - Biology Is Fun
The most vital aspect of proteins is that arrangement of amino acids determines their function.
Steps of Protein Synthesis
There are three major phases:Each of these phases are further subdivided into smaller steps.
In this phase, the pattern of nucleotides in the double coil DNA form are genetically converted into one strand of messenger RNA.
DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis
The amino acids are joined to form proteins by peptide bonds. The formation of peptide bonds requires a good amount of energy. Therefore, in the first phase of translation for protein synthesis, the amino acids are activated in the presence of ATP and linked to their cognate tRNA (transfer RNA). This process is called as charging of the tRNA or aminoacylation of tRNA. If two such charged tRNA are brought close enough, the formation of peptide bond between them is favored energetically. This function occurs inside the , as it contains two sites for subsequent amino acids to bind to and thus be close enough for bonding.
Where does protein synthesis occur? - Quora
For initiation of the translation process, the ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon recognized by the initiator tRNA. The ribosome then proceeds to the elongation phase of protein synthesis. During this stage, the complexes formed by amino acids are linked to tRNA, sub sequentially to bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complimentary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon. The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptide sequences dictated by the DNA and represented by mRNA. At the end, release factor binds to the stop codon, thus terminating the translation stage and completing the protein synthesis process. The complete polypeptide is released from the .
How it works
You submit your order instructions
We assign an appropriate expert
The expert takes care of your task
We send it to you upon completion
Average quality score
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."