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L4 | photosynthesis in higher plants | pigments involve …

Some plants and plantlike organisms have developed other pigments to compensate for low light or poor use of light. Cyanobacteria and red algae have phycocyanin and allophycocyanin as accessory pigments to absorbe orange light. They also have a red pigment called phycoerythrin that absorbs green light and extends the range of photosynthesis. The red pigment is found in vegetables. Some red algae are in fact nearly black, so that increases their photosynthetic efficiency. Brown algae have the pigment fucoxanthin in addition to chlorophyll to widen their absorption range. These red and brown algae grow to depths around 270 meters where the light is less than 1% of surface light.

In this lesson we will explore what a pigment is and the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis

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Accessory pigment Accessory pigments are light-absorbing ..

Accessory pigments are pigments which work alongside Chlorophyll a in photosynthesis, ..

Different photosynthetic organisms use differentcombinations of pigments, which have differentcolors because they absorb and reflect differentfrequencies of light.

Plants and greenalgae (plants are really advanced green algae)contain chlorophyll a (which is teal-green),chlorophyll b (which is yellow-green), andbeta-carotene (which is yellow), thus giving thema green color. Brown algae and their unicellularrelatives (e.g. diatoms) have chlorophylla,chlorophyll c, and lipid pigments calledfucoxanthins,which together give them agolden-brown color. Red algae possess chlorophylla and lipid-based pigments called phycobilins,which give them the brilliant red(or deep blue)color. These different combinations of pigmentsare more or less efficient at collecting light atcertain frequencies and at certain levels of lightintensity (too much will damage the pigment).Thus, they parcel out the Sun's energy to make themost use of it and to not compete with otherphotosynthetic organisms.

The purpose of photosynthesis is to convert theenergy in photons (the infinitesimally smallpackets of energy that make up light) into thechemical bonds of sugar molecules.

Plants(and animals that eat plants) can then store theenergy and get it back out when they need it bybreaking those chemical bonds. The tricky part ofphotosynthesis is that it takes a very preciseamount of energy to form a particular chemicalbond. Furthermore, the photons from differentcolors of light contain different amounts ofenergy.

You probably know the colors ofthe spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue,Indigo, Violet); well, those colors are inascending order of energy -- a photon of bluelight has more energy than a photon of red light(this is true because of Planck's Law, which aphysicist could explain better than I).

Aparticular pigment molecule (like chlorophyll) isspecialized for absorbing a particular color oflight and converting the light energy into theappropriate amount of chemical energy for making achemical bond (actually there are many othermolecules that help the pigment perform thisenergy conversion, but only the pigment itself canabsorb the light). Chlorophyll just absorbs blueand red light; it hardly absorbs any green lightat all, so the green gets reflected back to oureyes, which is why leaves appear green. Otherpigments that plants have in their leaves absorblight of different colors, so they reflect red,orange, yellow, or blue light and appear to bethose colors to our eyes. Because the white lightcoming from the sun is actually made up of photonsof all the different colors, it is veryadvantageous to the plant to have many pigmentsthat can absorb such a wide range of the availablecolors of light.

Accessory Pigments Flashcards | Quizlet

what is one reason why plants have accessory pigment molecules like ..

Everyone knows plants are food factories, and most are aware that their energy source is light. This transformation of light into food is called photosynthesis. What may be news to you, however, is that the color of the light has a measurable impact on the amount of energy a plant absorbs. The reason for this is the colors in light have different wavelengths and those wavelengths, depending on whether they are short or long, provide different levels of energy.

Carotenoids; are a class of accessory pigments that occur in all photosynthetic organisms such as algae and some types of fungus and bacteria, Xanthophylls; are another class of accessory pigments.

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