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The following are cellular components essential to photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis in plants and a few bacteria is responsible for feeding nearly all life on Earth. It allows energy from the sun to be converted into a storable form, usually glucose, which plants use to grow and thrive. Photosynthesis also generates the oxygen that animals need to survive. But here we animals repay the favor. We exhale the carbon dioxide that plants need for photosynthesis. Here, take a closer look at the oxygen/carbon dioxide cycle and the process of photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis powers almost all trophic chains and food webs on the Earth.

Immediatelyafter exposure to 14CO2, the plant's photosynthetic tissue iskilled by immersing it in boiling alcohol, and all of the biochemical reactions cease.

Photosynthesis begins in Photosystem 2.

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

On the other hand, anoxygenic photosynthesis uses electron donors other than water. The process typically occurs in bacteria such as purple bacteria and . “Anoxygenic photosynthesis does not produce oxygen — hence the name,” said , professor of botany at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “What is produced depends on the electron donor. For example, many bacteria use the bad-eggs-smelling gas hydrogen sulfide, producing solid sulfur as a byproduct.”

Just like in photosynthesis, they can't cross by them selves.

Dominic Thiem, Vasek Pospisil, Ernesto Escobedo and Max Mirnyi try to guess the meaning of some popular Aussie slang during their time in Melbourne.

The ATP and NADPH produced from the light dependent reactions in the thylakoid can now be subjected to a process called the Calvin Cycle which uses ATP and NADPH to reduce carbon dioxide and produce the carbohydrate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The cycle consists of three steps, the first of which is carbon fixation. In this step CO2 is fixed to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate.

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Photosynthesizing bacteria (cyanobacteria)use yet another system.

The action spectrum of photosynthesis is a graph showing the rate of photosynthesis for each wavelength of light. The rate of photosynthesis will not be the same for every wavelength of light. The rate of photosynthesis is the least with green-yellow light (525 nm-625 nm). Red-orange light (625nm-700nm) shows a good rate of photosynthesis however the best rate of photosynthesis is seen with violet-blue light (400nm-525nm).

How is ATP used in photosynthesis? - Quora

When a photon strikes photosystem I, the electrons are re-energized and passed through the electron transport chain to a specialized protein called NADP reductase, which reduces NADP+ to NADPH, the second energy carrier molecule critical to the light independent step of photosynthesis.

How is ATP used in photosynthesis? | Yahoo Answers

“Plastids originated from engulfed photosynthetic bacteria that were acquired by a single-celled eukaryotic cell more than a billion years ago,” Baum told LiveScience. Baum explained that the analysis of chloroplast genes shows that it was once a member of the group , “the one group of bacteria that can accomplish oxygenic photosynthesis.”

What is ATP and how does ATP production take place

Chloroplasts are similar to in that they have their own genome, or collection of genes, contained within circular DNA. These genes essential to the organelle and to photosynthesis. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts are also thought to have originated from primitive bacterial cells through the process of endosymbiosis.

NOVA - Official Website | Illuminating Photosynthesis

As we can see, there is a close relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthesis. There are many different types of photosynthetic pigments which will absorb light best at different wavelengths. However the most abundant photosynthetic pigment in plants is chlorophyll and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be the greatest at wavelengths of light best absorbed by chlorophyll (400nm-525nm corresponding to violet-blue light). Very little light is absorbed by chlorophyll at wavelengths of light between 525nm and 625 (green-yellow light) so the rate of photosynthesis will be the least within this range. However, there are other pigments that are able to absorb green-yellow light such as carotene. Even though these are present in small amounts they allow a low rate of photosynthesis to occur at wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot absorb.

This tutorial introduces photosynthesis

The high energy electrons that left photosystem II power the pumping of hydrogen ions from the stroma into the thylakoid to create a concentration gradient. This gradient powers a protein called ATP synthase which phosphorylates ADP to form ATP, an energy carrier that will be used in the light independent reactions. The energy depleted electrons leave the electron transport chain and enter photosystem I.

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