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Can photosynthesis occur at Saturn or Mars?

Applying ultra-violet visible spectrophotometry and various types of chromatography to compare the amounts of certain photosynthetic pigments in fresh, frozen, and canned phaseolus vulgaris and spinacia olercea.

A plant is a living organism with multiple cells that produce its food through photosynthesis.

Just 20 years ago, researchers discovered that plants weren’t the only living things with phytochromes. Thanks to DNA sequencing, scientists started uncovering similar genes in cyanobacteria, tiny green bacteria that live in oceans, rivers and streams.

Oxygen that is produced in photosynthesis is given off as a gas.

Count bubbles of oxygen gas given off by elodea to determine the rate of photosynthesis.4.

This simple version of a traditional science experiment makes a great class project to demonstrate that oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis. This project is best started in the morning of a sunny day. Elodea is the chosen plant because it gives off oxygen in the form of bubbles, which you should be able to see.

The Sun ( G2) radiates light in a particular distribution of colors, emitting more of some colors than others. Gases in Earth's atmosphere subsequently filter that sunlight, absorbing some colors (wavelengths), and so more red light photons reach Earth's surface than blue or green ones. Not surprisingly then, photosynthetic life on Earth's land surfaces such as plants (which includes multicellular organisms from grass to trees) tends to depend mostly on red light, because it is the most abundant wavelength reaching the surface, and on blue light, because it is the most energetic. Earth plants also absorb green light, but not as strongly, so leaves look green to the eye, having adapted to the conditions most commonly found around our Sun and on Earth's planetary surface. As most stars do not have the same distribution of light in color wavelengths as our Sun, however, some researchers hypothesize that photosynthetic life on extrasolar planets will not necessarily have the same colors as on Earth.

Producer of sophisticated photosynthesis measuring systems

How does light intensity and duration affect the rate of photosynthesis?

Autumnal to bluish colors. Main sequence stars brighter than the Sun (spectral types F and A and the very short-lived B and O) emit more blue and ultraviolet light than the Sun. Given sufficient time for Earth-type photosynthetic life to evolve (e.g., hundreds of millions to billions of years), planets around such stars could develop an oxygen atmosphere with a layer of ozone that blocks more energetic but potentially harmful ultraviolet but transmits more blue light to the ground than on the Earth. In response, life could evolve a type of photosynthesis that strongly absorbs blue light, and probably green as well. In contrast, yellow, orange, and red wavelengths of light would likely be reflected by such plants, so the foliage would have the bright colors found during autumn in Earth's deciduous forests all year round. On the other hand, some plants may reflect some blue light due to its overabundance and potential to "burn" photosynthetic organisms (e.g., like sunburn from ultraviolet exposure on Earth).

February 11 – 16, 2018
Ocean Science Meeting, Portland, Oregon, USA

March 11 – 14, 2018
17. Scientific Conference of the Phycology Section of the German Botanical Society, Berchtesgaden, Germany

March 13 – 17, 2018
75 Anniversary of the Society of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan. International Symposium on Agricultural Meteorology (ISAM2018), Fukuoka, Japan

March 28 – 30, 2018
59 Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, Sapporo, Japan

How does this investigation demonstrate that plants give off oxygen during  photosynthesis?
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Aquarium planting tips and care

Follow in the steps of van Helmont, John Woodward, Joseph Priestley and Jan Ingenhousz and discover photosynthesisIs plant growth affected by exposure to ultraviolet light?

Photosynthesis - Illinois Institute of Technology

The Effects of pH Levels and Phosphorous on the Photosynthesis Process of Aquatic PlantsStudy the coniferous spruce tree (Picea glauca as the species of choice) by measuring its lateral and sub-lateral branch angles in order to see how it collects sunlight from various angles on its south-facing side.

A perspective on underwater photosynthesis in …

The effects of various pH levels on the photosynthesis process of the aquatic plant elodeaThe effects of phosphorous on the photosynthesis of aquatic plantsDoes light affect stem growth?

This tutorial introduces photosynthesis

The previously unknown diversity of phytochromes in green algae suggests that the aquatic and semi-aquatic ancestors of early plants could absorb and use wavelengths of light that modern land plants can’t “see.”

Photosynthesis in aquatic plants - Stock Image …

To find out, Li and Kathleen Pryer of Duke and Sarah Matthews of Harvard scoured existing databases and analyzed 300 DNA and RNA sequences from the phytochrome proteins of a wide range of algae and land plants, including ferns, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, green algae, red algae, kelp, diatoms and other green blobs commonly found in ocean plankton.

Photosynthesis in aquatic plants

A group of photoreceptor proteins called phytochromes enable plants to detect and absorb light in the red and far-red regions of the light spectrum, the main wavelengths of light that plants use for photosynthesis.

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