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What is trojan gene hypothesis?
To revisit the Neanderthal split from about 500 kya, stayed in West Asia and Africa. When evidence of came to light, some scientists placed the beginning of the at about 500 kya. Stone tools have recently been dated using , which works for stone tools heated by fires, and using . That method measures water absorption into the surface of obsidian tools. For dating artifacts before the appearance of behaviorally modern humans about 70-50 kya, will not work, but successful. Neanderthals dominated Europe and today’s Middle East while home was Africa, and they also ranged to Europe and West Asia. Whether existed for only a half-million years or a million is controversial today, but what is not very controversial is that it is probably the direct ancestor of both Neanderthals and , and the first members of our species appeared in Africa about 200 kya. There is evidence that other descendants of may have existed, and . It also could have been a Neanderthal descendant. As with the discovery of the “” of Flores Island, it will not be surprising if scientists find more species that branched off of those early human and protohuman lines and died out when behaviorally modern humans spread across Africa and Eurasia.
Mass spectrometers have been invaluable for assigning dates to various rocks and sedimentary layers, as radioactive isotopes and their daughter isotopes are tested, including , , , and . Also, the ratios of elements in a sample can be determined, which can tell where it originated. Many hypotheses and theories have arisen, fallen, and been called into question or modified by the data derived from those increasingly sophisticated methods, and a few examples should suffice to give an idea of what is being discovered.
sexual selection and the Trojan gene hypothesis
But it was not only flying insects that became huge: giant , , and other arthropods also lived in the Carboniferous, such as mayflies with half-meter wingspans. The (more than two meters long) has been featured in popular culture as a nightmare creature, although it was vegetarian. The lived in the Carboniferous and reached seven meters long. The high-oxygen hypothesis is challenged for and giant animals in general, and the controversy will probably continue for many more years.
After as little as a half-million years of bedraggled survivors adapting to ice age seas, the ice sheets retreated and the oceans rose. The of the time may have also changed, and upwelling, anoxia, and other dramatic chemistry and nutrient changes happened. Those dynamics are suspected to be responsible for the second wave of extinctions. There also seem to have been .Atmospheric oxygen levels may have fallen from around 20% to 15% during the Ordovician, which would have contributed to the mass death. Seafloor anoxia seems to have been particularly lethal to continental-shelf biomes, possibly all the way to shore. It took the ecosystems millions of years to recover from the Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction, but basic ecosystem functioning was not significantly altered in the aftermath, which is why a has been proposed as a more significant extinction event. The were laid down by the . Most oil deposits were formed in the era of dinosaurs and the processes of oil deposit formation were similar; they were related to oceanic currents. When currents came to shore via the bottom and the prevailing winds blew the top waters offshore, it became a and anoxic sediments could form. When the winds blew onshore and left via the bottom, the waters became clear and are known as nutrient deserts. The oscillation between nutrient traps and nutrient deserts can be seen in oil deposit sediments. In the mid-20th century, Soviet scientists revived an old hypothesis that oil was , a variation of which was also championed by , but improving tools and investigation invalidated those hypotheses. No petroleum geologists today seriously consider the abiogenic origin of hydrocarbons. Oil sediment formation events seem related to mantle and crust processes that created high sea levels and anoxic events, and the last great one was in the , which formed more than 10% of the world's oil deposits.
Razib Khan's GNXP - Gene Expression
Just as with or the , there are plenty of scientists and scholars who argue that human-agency is not responsible for the decline and collapse of civilizations, question , assert that climate change did it, or invasion did it, and so on. The battle of competing hypotheses is part of the process of science, but all scientists whose hypotheses deflect responsibility from humanity (their ) have an inherent conflict of interest, and their work should be examined with that in mind. In the historical era, particularly when Europe conquered the world, the rapid deforestation and desertification of newly conquered lands was evident. Within a century of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, a valley of verdant forests and fertile farmland was . That valley is known as the today, because the desert-dwelling mesquite is the dominant tree in that semi-desert. British invaders of Australia did the same thing to within 50 years, via deforestation and sheep grazing. Streams quickly dried up, but flooded when it rained, as the “sponge” of the forest ecosystem was removed, so flood drought accompanied deforestation. Atlantic islands were by invading Spaniards and Portuguese.
In an event that favors the hypotheses of climate-change advocates, there was a dip in global temperatures , which lasted for a few centuries. It was probably caused by remnants of the North American ice sheets melting and the resultant flush of freshwater into the North Atlantic. It was a less severe event than the , but it still caused epic droughts around the world. Some scientists think that the uncertainty caused by those cooling events helped spur agriculture, to enhance food security. Climate change from that event could be why Çatal Höyük was abandoned, and Tell Abu Hureyra survived the event, to only be abandoned several centuries later when another major dip in global temperatures occurred.
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Genetics & the Jews - Gene Expression
Many assumptions of neoclassical economics have been convincingly falsified by the physical, biological, and social sciences. Some of those assumptions are that people are independently minded rational actors who do not look to what others do (i.e., humans are not herd animals), that the economy can be divorced from the ecosystem that supports it, that money can substitute for , and that economic production can be described without referencing physical work. Neoclassical economics ignores the fact that entropy saps the efficiency of any system, economic or otherwise. Unlike a genuine science, almost no branches of today’s economics, particularly neoclassical economics, base their theories on hypotheses that can be tested and . Today’s mainstream economics resembles a faith more than a science.
Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …
The racist ideology that Hitler’s regime promoted was only a of what other imperial aspirants already had, and and he modeled his genocidal plans for Eastern Europe after what the . Hitler’s ideological crime was using racist ideology to make chosen people inferior. All such ideologies appealed to people’s egos as they elevated their and, with their superiority then self-evident, they could commit their awesome crimes with clear consciences, free of .
China Bans Initial Coin Offerings, Warning of Financial Scams
One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.
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