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T1 - Enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis and their regulation

AB - We (Wang H, Berschneider HM, Du J, and Black DD. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 272: G935-G942, 1997; Wang H, Lu S, Du J, Yao Y, Berschneider HM, and Black DD. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280: G1137-G1144, 2001) previously showed that different fatty acids influence synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol (TG) and phospholipid (PL) in a newborn swine enterocyte cell line (IPEC-1). The most striking effects were produced by stearic acid (SA; 18:0), which modestly affected TG and PL synthesis but reduced TG and PL secretion, and by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5), which reduced TG and PL synthesis and TG secretion relative to oleic acid (OA; 18:1). To define the mechanism of these effects, differentiated IPEC-1 cells were incubated for 24 h with OA, SA, or EPA and [3H]glycerol. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi (G) content of labeled lipids and apolipoprotein (apo) B and apoAI protein were measured. Relative to OA, SA did not impair ER TG synthesis, but reduced movement of labeled TG from ER to G. EPA impaired both ER TG synthesis and movement of labeled TG from ER to G. PL followed the same pattern, except ER synthesis of PL was relatively unaffected by EPA. Carbonate treatment demonstrated decreased partitioning of labeled lipid from ER membrane to lumen in EPA-treated cells. Organelle apoB and apoAI content demonstrated opposite patterns after SA and EPA incubation. We conclude that SA and EPA adversely influence immature enterocyte ER to G lipid trafficking, compared with OA. Furthermore, EPA inhibits ER lipid synthesis and transfer of membrane lipid to luminal particles. Regulation of apoAI ER to G trafficking is independent of that of apoB.

Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols

AB - Glyceroneogenesis, i.e. the synthesis of the glycerol moiety of triacylglycerol from pyruvate, has been suggested to be quantitatively important in both the liver and adipose tissue during fasting. However, the actual contribution of glyceroneogenesis to triacylglycerol synthesis has not been quantified in vivo in human studies. In the present study we have measured the contribution of glycerol and pyruvate to in vivo synthesis of hepatic triacylglycerol in nonpregnant and pregnant women after an overnight fast. Five nonpregnant women were administered [13C3]glycerol tracer as prime constant rate infusion, and the appearance of tracer in plasma glucose and triacylglycerol was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The contribution of pyruvate to hepatic triacylglycerol was quantified in nonpregnant and pregnant women using the deuterium labeling of body water method. The appearance of [2H] in hydrogens on C1 and C3 of triacylglycerol was measured following periodate oxidation of the glycerol isolated from hydrolyzed triacylglycerol. After a 16-h fast, -6.1% of the plasma triacylglycerol pool was derived from plasma glycerol, whereas 10 to 60% was derived from pyruvate in nonpregnant women and pregnant women early in gestation. Our data suggest that glyceroneogenesis from pyruvate is quantitatively a major contributor to plasma triacylglycerol synthesis and may be important for the regulation of very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol production. Our data also suggest that 3-glycerol phosphate is in rapid equilibrium with the triosephosphate pool, resulting in rapid labeling of the triose pool by the administered tracer glycerol. Because the rate of flux of triosephosphate to glucose during fasting far exceeds that to triacylglycerol, more glycerol ends up in glucose than in triacylglycerol. Alternatively, there may be two distinct pools of 3-glycerol phosphate in the liver, one involved in generating triosephosphate from glycerol and the other involved in glyceride-glycerol synthesis.

First we discuss the route to triacylglycerols and its regulation.

KW - Triacylglycerol synthesis

Presentation Summary : triacylglycerol. and glycogen ... The products of digestion provide the tissues with the building blocks for the biosynthesis of complex molecules and also with the ...

N2 - GPAT1, one of four known glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase isoforms, is located on the mitochondrial outer membrane, allowing reciprocal regulation with carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. GPAT1 is upregulated transcriptionally by insulin and SREBP-1c and downregulated acutely by AMP-activated protein kinase, consistent with a role in triacylglycerol synthesis. Knockout and overexpression studies suggest that GPAT1 is critical for the development of hepatic steatosis and that steatosis initiated by overexpression of GPAT1 causes hepatic, and perhaps also peripheral, insulin resistance. Future questions include the function of GPAT1 in relation to the other GPAT isoforms and whether the lipid intermediates synthesized by GPAT and downstream enzymes in the pathway of glycerolipid biosynthesis participate in intracellular signaling pathways.

The Lactose Operon—A Look at Regulation; Protein Synthesis ..

AB - Since the pathways of glycerolipid biosynthesis were elucidated in the 1950's, considerable knowledge has been gained about the enzymes that catalyze the lipid biosynthetic reactions and the factors that regulate triacylglycerol biosynthesis. In the last few decades, in part due to advances in technology and the wide availability of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, we have made enormous strides in our understanding of these enzymes at the molecular level. In many cases, sequence information obtained from lipid biosynthetic enzymes of prokaryotes and yeast has provided the means to search the genomic and expressed sequence tag databases for mammalian homologs and most of the genes have now been identified. Surprisingly, multiple isoforms appear to catalyze the same chemical reactions, suggesting that each isoform may play a distinct functional role in the pathway of triacylglycerol and phospholipid biosynthesis. This review focuses on the de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in eukaryotic cells, the isoenzymes that are involved, their subcellular locations, how they are regulated, and their putative individual roles in glycerolipid biosynthesis.

AB - Studies showing a correlation of excess myocardial triacylglycerol stores with apoptosis, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction indicate that dysregulation of triacylglycerol metabolism may contribute to cardiac disease. This review covers the regulation of heart triacylglycerol accumulation at the critical control points of fatty acid uptake, enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis, lipolysis, and lipoprotein secretion. These pathways are discussed in the context of the central role myocardial triacylglycerol plays in cardiac energy metabolism and heart disease.

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16/01/2018 · Synthesis of Triacylglycerols

N2 - Since the pathways of glycerolipid biosynthesis were elucidated in the 1950's, considerable knowledge has been gained about the enzymes that catalyze the lipid biosynthetic reactions and the factors that regulate triacylglycerol biosynthesis. In the last few decades, in part due to advances in technology and the wide availability of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, we have made enormous strides in our understanding of these enzymes at the molecular level. In many cases, sequence information obtained from lipid biosynthetic enzymes of prokaryotes and yeast has provided the means to search the genomic and expressed sequence tag databases for mammalian homologs and most of the genes have now been identified. Surprisingly, multiple isoforms appear to catalyze the same chemical reactions, suggesting that each isoform may play a distinct functional role in the pathway of triacylglycerol and phospholipid biosynthesis. This review focuses on the de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in eukaryotic cells, the isoenzymes that are involved, their subcellular locations, how they are regulated, and their putative individual roles in glycerolipid biosynthesis.

Plant Triacylglycerol Synthesis - AOCS Lipid Library

AB - GPAT1, one of four known glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase isoforms, is located on the mitochondrial outer membrane, allowing reciprocal regulation with carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. GPAT1 is upregulated transcriptionally by insulin and SREBP-1c and downregulated acutely by AMP-activated protein kinase, consistent with a role in triacylglycerol synthesis. Knockout and overexpression studies suggest that GPAT1 is critical for the development of hepatic steatosis and that steatosis initiated by overexpression of GPAT1 causes hepatic, and perhaps also peripheral, insulin resistance. Future questions include the function of GPAT1 in relation to the other GPAT isoforms and whether the lipid intermediates synthesized by GPAT and downstream enzymes in the pathway of glycerolipid biosynthesis participate in intracellular signaling pathways.

Plant Triacylglycerol Synthesis Introduction

Presentation Summary : BIOSYNTHESIS or DE NOVO SYNTHESIS OF ... The excess carbohydrate and protein obtained through diet can be converted to fatty acids which are stored as triacylglycerol.

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