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State the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
Introduction to combustion, importance, applications, engineering issues; Laws of thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, adiabatic flame temperature; Fundamentals of mass transfer, species conservation equation, Stefan problem, droplet vaporization; Gas kinetic theory, elementary and global reactions, reaction mechanisms, reaction rates, steady-state and partial equilibrium approximations; Hydrogen oxidation; Carbon monoxide oxidation; Hydrocarbon oxidation; Basic chemical reactors, constant pressure and constant volume reactors, well-stirred reactor, plug-flow reactor; Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations; Laminar premixed flames, flame speed, flame thickness, flame speed measurement, ignition, quenching, flammability, flame stabilization; Laminar non-premixed flames, jet flames, counterflow diffusion flames; Droplet vaporization and combustion; Solid particle combustion
Open, closed, and isolated thermodynamic systems; state and process variables; extensive and intensive thermodynamic properties; first, second and third law of thermodynamics; condition and criterion for equilibrium; introduction to statistical thermodynamics; single component systems and introduction to potential phase diagram, Clausius-Clapeyron equation; multicomponent systems and solution thermodynamics, mixing process, ideal, regular and non-regular solution, behavior of dilute solutions, partial molal properties, chemical potential, Gibbs-Duhem equation; homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, Gibbs phase rule, composition-temperature phase diagrams, lever rule; thermodynamics of phase diagrams, reference states, free-energy composition curves, common tangent construction; thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces, surface excess properties, capillarity effects on phase diagram, thermodynamics of point defects.
BioCoach Activity Cell Respiration Introduction
Postulates of Thermodynamics; Conditions of thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium, examples; Maxwell relations, Thermodynamics stability; Statistical basis of thermodynamics, microscopic and macroscopic states. Classical ideal gas, Boltzman H theorem and irreversibility. Ergodic process; Micro canonical ensemble, counting of states and phase space volume; Canonical Ensemble, equilibrium between system and heat reservoir, canonical partition function, Helmholtz free energy, Grand canonical Ensemble, partition function, particle number and energy fluctuations; Quantum statistical ensemble theory: density matrix formulation; system of identical particles, manybody wavefunctions for non-interacting fermions and bosons; ideal quantum gases: Bose-Einstein statistics, Fermi-Dirac statistics; Bose systems, Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC ) in non-interacting gases. BEC in Interacting systems- experimental observation in Rb atoms; Photon gas, and thermodynamics of Blackbody radiation. Elementary excitations of liquid Helium –II; Ideal Fermi gas description, Paramagnetism and Landau diamagnetism, electron gas in metals, Specific heat of metals; Phase transitions, Condensation in Van der Waals gas, Ising model and Ferromagnetism. Landau Phenomenological theory; Non-Equilibrium statistical mechanics, Brownian motion, random walks, Langevin equation, Markov process.
Thermodynamics vs kinetics; Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions - chemical reaction control rate equation, reaction rate constant, reaction order, non-elementary reactions; Solid State Diffusion -Fick’s Law, mechanisms of diffusion, uphill diffusion, Kirkendall effect, steady and transient diffusion; External mass transfer -fluid flow and its relevance to mass transfer, general mass transport equation, concept of mass transfer coefficient, models of mass transfer -film theory and Higbie’s penetration theory; Internal mass transfer-ordinary and Knudsen diffusion, mass transfer with reaction; Adsorption –physical adsorption vs. chemisorption, adsorption isotherms - Langmuir, BET; Adsorption as the rate limiting step examples - gasification of C by CO2, dissolution of N2 in molten steel; Porous solids - specific surface area and pore size distribution; Reactor design -batch vs continuous reactors, ideal stirred tank and plug flow reactors; Mass balance in ideal reactors, residence time distribution; Models of industrial reactors; Electrochemical kinetics-concept of polarization, activation over potential, Butler-Volmer and Tafel’s equation, applications in electro-deposition and corrosion.
LIGHT SOURCES AND IMPORTANCE OF RELEASE
Overview of measure-theoretic probability; Stochastic processes, filtrations, stopping times, martingales; Brownian motion, construction and properties, Kolmogorov's extension and continuity theorems; Stochastic integrals, construction and properties, Ito versus Stratonovich, Ito’s formula, Levy's characterisation of Brownian motion, Girsanov’s theorem; Stochastic differential equations, existence and uniqueness of solutions, strong and weak solutions, Markov property, infinitesimal generator, probabilistic representation of solutions to certain linear partial differential equations; the filtering problem, Kalman-Bucy filter.
Review of special relativity, uniformly accelerated observer, equivalence principle, gravitational redshift, gravity as the manifestation of space time curvature; Concept of differential manifold: Covariant derivative and connection, Lie derivative, space time metric, Christoffel symbols, Riemann curvature tensor, Ricci and Einstein tensors, Weyl tensor; Electrodynamics in curved space time; Hilbert action and Einstein’s field equation, Newtonian limit, energy conditions; Space time symmetries and Killing vector. Conserved quantities; Vacuum solution of general relativity, Schwarzschild metric, Birkhoff’s theorem, geodesics of Schwarzschild space time, Newtonian vs. relativistic orbits; Experimental test of general relativity: Bending of light, perihelion precession of Mercury, Shapiro time-delay; Weak field limit and linearised field equations, gravitational radiation, radiation by sources, energy loss. Introduction to post-Newtonian formulation.
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Science Videos - Teach With Fergy
Photosynthesis, for example, is the concerted action of dozens of proteins (genes) with copy numbers in the hundreds to enable a simple chemical equation: carbon dioxide + water = sugar.
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