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Solar energy refers to the energy of the solar radiation, ..

Significant relationships were found between our PDSI [Palmer Drought Severity Index] reconstruction and the solar radiation cycle and the sun spot cycle, North Atlantic Oscillation, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, as well as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

Winter insolation [surface solar radiation] can influence the rainfall via three ways.

Without chemistry-climate interaction the AMOC is intensified in the course of the solar radiation reduction (SRR), which is attributed to the thermal effect of the solar forcing: reduced sea surface temperatures and enhanced sea ice formation increase the density of the upper ocean in the North Atlantic and intensify the deepwater formation.

The figure below gives data on solar radiation ..

It is used with a pyrheliometer to make continuous measurements of solar radiation. F.

The amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth is, since it is measured, almost constant, there is no evidence of significant fluctuations. A portion of the solar energy is scattered in the atmosphere by solid (e.g. ice crystals, dust) or liquid suspended particles and of the gaseous components and is reflected. Another part is absorbed by the atmosphere and converted into heat. The rest of solar energy reaches the Earth’s surface where again a part of it is reflected, some of it is absorbed and converted into heat.


Areas of the Southern Ocean have spectacular blooms of phytoplankton during the austral spring and early summer. One of the dominant phytoplankton species, the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica, is a prolific producer of the organic sulfur compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Phaeocystis blooms are associated with some of the world's highest concentrations of DMSP and its volatile degradation product, dimethylsulfide (DMS). Sulfur, in the form of DMS, is transferred from the oceans to the atmosphere and can affect the chemistry of precipitation and influence cloud properties and possibly climate. DMSP and DMS are also quantitatively significant components of the carbon, sulfur and energy flows in many marine food webs, although very little information is available on these processes in high latitude systems.

This project will study how solar radiation and iron cycling affect DMSP and DMS production by phytoplankton, and the subsequent utilization of these labile forms of organic matter by the microbial food web. Four interrelated hypotheses will be tested in field-based experiments and in situ observations: 1) solar radiation, including enhanced UV-B due to seasonal ozone depletion, plays an important role in determining the net ecosystem production of DMS in the Ross Sea; 2) development of shallow mixed layers promotes the accumulation of DMS in surface waters, because of enhanced exposure of plankton communities to high doses of solar radiation; 3) DMSP production and turnover represent a significant part of the carbon and sulfur flux through polar food webs; 4) bloom development and resulting nutrient depletion (e.g., iron) will result in high production rates of DMSP and high DMS concentrations and atmospheric fluxes. Results from this study will greatly improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms controlling DMSP and DMS concentrations in polar waters, thereby improving our ability to predict DMS fluxes to the atmosphere from this important climatic region.

Both Drs. Kieber and Kiene actively engage high school, undergraduate and graduate students in their research and are involved in formal programs that target underrepresented groups (NSF-REU and the American Chemical Society-SEED). This project will continue this type of educational outreach. The PIs also teach undergraduate and graduate courses and incorporation of research experiences into their classes will enrich student learning experiences.

A Global Solar Radiation Model for the Design of Solar Energy Systems

Last three decades have been signified by great efforts in investigation of the Earth’s cycle and growing interest of researches in modelling different parameters of solar radiation at all scales from global to local.

To predict the values of temperatureand instant solar radiation when equipment are not readily available from obtained equations, agood knowledge and understanding of the disposition and distribution of solar radiation is arequirement for modelling earth’s weather and climate change variables.

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A Global Solar Radiation Model for the Design of Solar ..

In this algorithm, the amount of incoming solar radiation above the canopy was derived from the combination of the extraterrestrial irradiance and the local atmospheric conditions such as cloudness information and the optical air mass.

“Effects of radiation on solar cells as photovoltaic generators ..

A pyranometer (CM3) inseries with a PHYWE amplifier and a voltmeter were experimentally set-up and used to study theamount of solar radiation received at the Physics Department of the University of Ghana duringthe day.

Study of solar microwave radiation using multifrequency data

Of course, a 0% attribution for solar forcing assumes that we presently know enough already about the Sun and how it influences terrestrial climate change and ocean heat flux. It assumes that we are and have been accurately calculating the response of the climate system to variations in absorbed solar heat energy, and that we are and have been accurately measuring absorbed solar heat energy. It assumes there is little uncertainty and there are no consequential errors in our reconstructions and modeling of solar radiative forcing over time (or recently).

Plataforma Solar de Almería

AF. Meftah, AM. Meftah, N. Sengouga, S. Khelifi,
"The AlxGa1−xAs window composition effect on the hardness improvement of a p+�n�n+GaAs solar cell exposed to the electron irradiation",
Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 51, Issue 8, August 2010, pp. 1676-1678.

Heat Engine Projects mostly associated with solar power.

When our Sun erupts with giant explosions—such as bursts of radiation called solar flares—we know they can affect space throughout the solar system as well as near Earth. But monitoring their effects requires having observatories in many places with many perspectives, much the way weather sensors all over Earth can help us monitor what's happening with a terrestrial storm.

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