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This is Socrates as the opposite of an armchair philosopher.
Descartes was not Socrates, and it is ahistorical to remake him in the image of Socrates. Descartes did not philosophize in the city streets, but only in his own room; his work was known only to the most educated people of his time. That all men should question all things, as Socrates had done daily in the public places of Athens, was not what Descartes demanded of philosophy; for him the place of the philosopher was as it had been for Plato, sheltering beside a wall in against a storm -- and maybe for the same reason as Republic 496c-d. But whether he also thought, as Plato did, philosophy to be a subject for an elect few only, I don't know. (Plato, )
There is Nicostratus the son of Theosdotides, and the brother ofTheodotus (now Theodotus himself is dead, and therefore he, at any rate,will not seek to stop him); and there is Paralus the son of Demodocus, whohad a brother Theages; and Adeimantus the son of Ariston, whose brotherPlato is present; and Aeantodorus, who is the brother of Apollodorus, whomI also see.
Thesis for Platos Apology | Chegg Tutors
What Plato's Socrates lacks is "philosophical knowledge" (if there is such a thing). He seeks the essences of the cardinal virtues of Greek ethics: "courage", "piety", "justice", "temperance". If he can define those words, Plato reasons, then he will have that will tell anyone in any and all circumstances how he should live his life. -- That is the criterion for 'being wise' that Socrates sets -- and because he sets this criterion, he has sufficient reason to assert that he knows -- not merely believes or suspects, but knows -- that he is not wise, namely, because he does not know the essential definitions of those words. Therefore, rather than "I know that I know nothing", it might be clearer to quote Socrates as saying "I know that I am without wisdom. I know that I am not wise" (Apology 23b).
But note well: the truths the historical Socrates wants to discover are not truths about the natural world (physics), nor about the reality behind that world (metaphysics), but about "the correct conduct of human life" (ethics). [According to the : Socrates introduced ethics -- i.e. that part of philosophy "concerned with life [but not in the sense of 'biology'] and all that has to do with us" -- to philosophy. (But were the Sophists not concerned with what we call ethics?)]
Plato, The Apology (The Death of Socrates)
"...they mention those accusations that are available against all philosophers..." So Socrates is thought of as a Presocratic and/or Sophist, and everything people believe about their teachings is attributed to him.
That statement is apparently based on Socrates' trial according to Plato (Apology 20e-21d). Durant here casts (or tries to cast) doubt on of the oracle's words to Chaerephon. Questions: Is there any statement of ancient history to which the word 'alleged' cannot be appended? Does the word 'alleged' contrast with the words 'proved' or 'disproved'? How do we distinguish between "The story is told" (Herodotus' skepticism) and "The event really happened" (Thucydides)? What reason does Durant have to doubt the ancient story's truth? He doesn't say what he means by 'alleged' -- i.e. what work that word is to do here -- and therefore it does no work here. (A word that could be would be a word without meaning.)
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Plato: Phaedo | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Neither Socrates nor Descartes believed that "all things are unknowable", although Plato believed that "so long as we keep to the body", the soul in its imprisoned state cannot "attain satisfactorily" the knowledge we seek in philosophy (Phaedo 66b).
Thesis plato apology - Admanline
"Think for yourself!" may be the motto of philosophy. But maybe we need to learn from teachers like Socrates , although despite my belief that , the standard he set for philosophy, is the wisest, well, the question of how to think philosophically -- is itself a philosophical question. But Plato did believe that ( 210a-c, and ), and therefore , not knowing his own limits ... if we would like to call that something that philosophy teaches us.
The Historicity of Platos Apology of Socrates - Scribd
by Sandra Peterson (Cambridge University Press) In Plato's Apology, Socrates says he spent his life examining and questioning people on how best to live, while avowing that he himself knows nothing important. Elsewhere, however, for example in Plato's Republic, Plato's Socrates presents radical and grandiose theses.
In this book Sandra Peterson offers a new hypothesis which explains the puzzle of Socrates' two contrasting manners. She argues that the apparently confident doctrinal Socrates is in fact conducting the first step of an examination: by eliciting his interlocutors' reactions, his apparently doctrinal lectures reveal what his interlocutors believe is the best way to live. She tests her hypothesis by close reading of passages in the Theaetetus, Republic, and Phaedo. Her provocative conclusion, that there is a single Socrates whose conception and practice of philosophy remain the same throughout the dialogues, will be of interest to a wide range of readers in ancient philosophy and classics.
The Plato’s Apology | Accurate Essays
Andtherefore if you let me go now, and are not convinced by Anytus, who saidthat since I had been prosecuted I must be put to death; (or if not that Iought never to have been prosecuted at all); and that if I escape now, yoursons will all be utterly ruined by listening to my words--if you say to me,Socrates, this time we will not mind Anytus, and you shall be let off, butupon one condition, that you are not to enquire and speculate in this wayany more, and that if you are caught doing so again you shall die;--if thiswas the condition on which you let me go, I should reply: Men of Athens, Ihonour and love you; but I shall obey God rather than you, and while I havelife and strength I shall never cease from the practice and teaching ofphilosophy, exhorting any one whom I meet and saying to him after mymanner: You, my friend,--a citizen of the great and mighty and wise cityof Athens,--are you not ashamed of heaping up the greatest amount of moneyand honour and reputation, and caring so little about wisdom and truth andthe greatest improvement of the soul, which you never regard or heed atall?
Dr. Y's Notes on Plato's Apology - The Trial of Socrates
The gods have no place in Socrates' philosophy. The words of Apollo's oracle are a riddle for reason to solve, and if reason were unable to solve that riddle (i.e. to discover the meaning of the god's words), then Socrates would have to set it to one side as a mystery. But Apollo's words did, according to Plato, give (of questioning, cross-questioning and refutation in order ) its direction in the context of Ethics: for "Know thyself" -- i.e. for how man should live his life. (That was the concern of the historical Socrates. Others have directed their studies in philosophy elsewhere, e.g. to epistemology and metaphysics, as did Descartes.)
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