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2017 Liquid Crystals Conference GRC
Crystal-to-Glass Transition: Disorder plays a critical role in traditional melting andfreezing phenomena and in the formation of glasses. Melting from crystal to fluid, for example, is a sharptransition accompanied by loss of orientational and translationalorder and by a dramatic decrease in flow resistanceand rearrangement time scale. By contrast, orientationaland translational order are not changed significantlyat the liquid-to-glass transition, even as viscosity and rearrangementtime scale diverge. An interesting, less-studied but closely related problem concerns the role played by frustration and disorder in drivingthe transformation of a crystal to a glass. We have carried out experiments that probe this transition: from crystalline solid to glass as a function of quenched disorder. The experiments employ temperature-dependent nearly hard-sphere binary colloidal suspensions composed of two particle sizes with substantially different diameters. The number fraction of small diameter “dopant” particles is varied from 0.0 to 0.5, and the area fraction of the two-dimensional (2D) suspension is varied from 0.75 to 0.90 at each dopant concentration. This approach enables us to trace sample evolution as function of increasing quenched disorder at fixed area fraction. The resultant glassy phases acquire typical properties such as dynamic heterogeneity and disorder, but the crystal-to-glass transition is quite sharp, also exhibiting features often associated with melting.
Our group has been investigating LCLCs in a variety of geometries, for example, within spherical drops, in hollow cylinders, and between parallel plates. We have also developed ways to alter the anchoring conditions of chromonic aggregates (rods) on the surfaces of these containers, e.g., with directors parallel or perpendicular to the containing walls. These studies enable us to probe the subtle interplay between bulk liquid crystal elasticity, container geometry, and defect topology which ultimately affects liquid crystal structure. One especially interesting feature derives from the fact that LCLC twist elasticity tends to be much weaker than its bend and splay elasticities; thus the liquid crystal director (internal orientation) readily twists, and the nematic phase can spontaneously form chiral structures. Thus, our work also sheds light on the origins of chiral symmetry breaking. In spherical drops, for example, we observed twisted bipolar structures of the nematic phase director with unusually large twist, and surprisingly we even observed facetted drops associated with the columnar phase (figure 1a-c). In cylinders with perpendicular (homeotropic) boundary conditions for the director, we discovered twisted-escaped-radial configurations of the LCLC, as well as new kinds of defects that separated structures with differing chirality and escape direction. In cylinders with parallel boundary conditions for the director, we measured a “fourth” type of elasticity called saddle-splay for the first time in LCLCs (figure 2).
STUDIES OF LIQUID CRYSTAL RESPONSE TIME | …
Tourmaline is a dichroiccrystal that has all the properties required of a crystal polarizer except thatit also absorbs one of the two polarizations more strongly as it passesthrough.
Birefringence is a property of many materials whereby a monochromatic beamwill be divided into two beams having orthogonal polarizations upon enteringthe crystal.
STUDIES OF LIQUID CRYSTAL RESPONSE ..
Current research explores self-assembly in microgravity, self-assembly of non-spherical particles on surfaces and in the bulk, convective assembly of particles on templated surfaces, and colloidal crystal templates filled with liquid crystalline material.
Many of the interesting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes are anisotropic due to the large length-to-diameter ratio of carbon nanotubes; responses measured parallel to the nanotube central axis differ from those measured in other directions. Thus many of the potential applications of SWNTs aim to produce composite materials with aligned nanotubes in order to take full advantage of these anisotropic responses. A nematic phase of SWNTs, similar to those of thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, offers a natural route for creation of aligned composites.
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Find out information about thermotropic liquid crystal
This is particularly true of intracavity frequency doubled lasers where mode competition results in increased noise due to the non-linear behavior of the SHG crystal (the so-called "green noise problem").
Liquid crystals in random environments - Harvard …
The output of those green laser pointersis quite monochromatic at 532 nm and the IR of the pump diode and Nd:YAG orNd:YVO4 crystal should be blocked by a filter.
Materials — Introduction to liquid crystals
Fluorescence is a process where light of one wavelength is absorbed andre-emitted at a longer wavelength and is the first step toward lasing inmaterials like gases and crystals.
Not already familiar with the science of liquid crystals (LCs)
For example, for a microchip laser consisting of a sandwichof Nd:YVO4 (neodymium doped vanadate) and MgO:LiNbO3(magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate), the relative orientation of the twocrystals will change the effective (optical) length of the cavity because ofthe variation in nE in the MgO:LiNbO3 with respect tothe polarization orientation of the Nd:YVO4 (which is fixed).
Characterisation of aqueous solutions, liquid crystals …
Anyway, the acoustic wave creates a three dimensional (volume) phase gratingin the crystal by means of the local changes in the index of refraction (thephotoelastic effect).
Characterisation of aqueous solutions, liquid crystals and solid ..
If the faces of the crystal are plane-parallel, a beam entering from oneside at an orientation which is not the same as the/an optical axis willdivide inside the crystal into orthogonally polarized beams and will exitas separate beams (which may overlap) at the other face:
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