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Hypothesis versus Theory versus Fact
What is key in the description of the scientific methodjust given is the predictive power (the ability to get more out of the theorythan you put in; see Barrow, 1991) of the hypothesis or theory, as tested byexperiment.
For example, the laws of classical mechanics (Newton'sLaws) are valid only when the velocities of interest are much smaller than thespeed of light (that is, in algebraic form, when v/c > 10-8 m).
The scientific method has four steps1.
From what has beenstated above, we determine that the scientific method works best in situationswhere one can isolate the phenomenon of interest, by eliminating or accountingfor extraneous factors, and where one can repeatedly test the system understudy after making limited, controlled changes in it.There are, of course, circumstances when one cannot isolate the phenomena orwhen one cannot repeat the measurement over and over again.
Theprocess you might go through to solve this problem could involve scientificthinking, and the results might contradict your initial expectations.Like any good scientist, you may question the range of situations (outside ofscience) in which the scientific method may be applied.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Univ.
It's a prediction of cause and effect. Usually, a hypothesis can be supported or refuted through experimentation or more observation. A hypothesis can be disproven, but not proven to be true.
Hypothesis Example: If you see no difference in the cleaning ability of various laundry detergents, you might hypothesize that cleaning effectiveness is not affected by which detergent you use. You can see this hypothesis can be disproven if a stain is removed by one detergent and not another. On the other hand, you cannot prove the hypothesis. Even if you never see a difference in the cleanliness of your clothes after trying a thousand detergents, there might be one you haven't tried that could be different.
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Scientific Hypothesis, Theory, Law Definitions - …
We will now recast the above results in terms of a strong logic. Weshall make full use of large cardinal axioms and in this setting weare interested in logics that are “well-behaved” in thesense that the question of what implies what is not radicallyindependent. For example, it is well known that CH is expressible infull second-order logic. It follows that in the presence of largecardinals one can always use set forcing to flip the truth-value of apurported logical validity of full second-order logic. However, thereare strong logics—like ω-logic and β-logic—thatdo not have this feature—they are well-behaved in the sense thatin the presence of large cardinal axioms the question of what implieswhat cannot be altered by set forcing. We shall introduce a verystrong logic that has this feature—Ω-logic. In fact, thelogic we shall introduce can be characterized asthe strongest logic with this feature (seeKoellner (2010) for further discussion of strong logics and for aprecise statement of this result).
Theory vs. Hypothesis Flashcards | Quizlet
This illustrates an interesting contrast between our threeversions of the effective continuum hypothesis, namely, that they cancome apart. For while large cardinals rule out definablecounterexamples of the first two kinds, they cannot rule out definablecounterexamples of the third kind. But again we must stress that theycannot prove that there are such counterexamples.
Scientific Hypothesis, Theory, or Law? - Futurism
Again, axioms of definable determinacy and large cardinal axiomsimply this version of CH for richer notions of definability. Forexample, if AD(ℝ) holds then this version of CHholds for all sets of real numbers in (ℝ). And if there is aproper class of Woodin cardinals then this version of CH holds for alluniversally Baire sets of reals.
Theory vs Hypothesis (Science Rap) - SciTunes #7 - …
There are three different formulations of the continuumhypothesis—the interpolant version,the well-ordering version, and the surjectionversion. These versions are all equivalent to one another in ZFC butwe shall be imposing a definability constraint and in this case therecan be interesting differences (our discussion followsMartin (1976)). There is really a hierarchy of notionsof definability—ranging up through the Borel hierarchy, theprojective hierarchy, the hierarchy in (ℝ), and, moregenerally, the hierarchy of universally Baire sets—and so eachof these three general versions is really a hierarchy of versions,each corresponding to a given level of the hierarchy ofdefinability (for a discussion of the hierarchy ofdefinability see and §4.6 of the entry “”).
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