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Justin Dix "The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A View ..

In a 2008 study of the relevant paleoceanographic data, Kieran Westley and Justin Dix concluded that "it is clear from the paleoceanographic and paleo-environmental data that the LGM North Atlantic does not fit the descriptions provided by the proponents of the Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis. Although ice use and sea mammal hunting may have been important in other contexts, in this instance, the conditions militate against an ice-edge-following, maritime-adapted European population reaching the Americas."

2008-Westley-The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis a View From the Ocean

Therefore the Solutreans would have to navigate large areas of open water to reach North and South America, which no human at the time could possibly be prepared for such a trip.
Proposed Argument
P1:
The presence of specific stone tools along the west coast of North America and Northwest Mexico indicate the presence of Clovis culture shared from Siberia as well as other parts of East Asia.
P2:
Coastal migration answers the question as to how Clovis tools were discovered as far south as Monte Verde.
P3:
DNA found in the human genome of ancestors that had lived along the west coast specifically corresponds to that of Clovis ancestry.
P4:
The Solutreans were not capable of navigating across such a vast sea such as the Atlantic
Conclusion 1:
The Solutrean Hypothesis could not be valid.
Conclusion2:
Therefore, the first humans must have arrived on the continents via the path of Beringia and/or coastal migration.
Weak or Unconvincing Premises
The idea of coastal migration could be just as radical as the idea of open sea navigation that the Solutreans would have to deal with along with other factors (drifting out to sea, not having food or water, etc…).
There is a chance that it could be combination of Solutrean and Clovis emigration into North and South America, which would even further support extinction of so many mammals at that time.
OR the idea of convergent evolution could possibly come into play millions of years prior to any humans emigrating to here.

The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A View from ..

This group would have been isolated from the ancestral population in Northeast Asia and may have gained substantial genetic differences from this separation.
This scenario was entitled “Beringia Stands Still”
Weak Evidence (Solutrean Hypothesis): Atlantic Ocean Navigation
Kieran Westley (University of Ulster) and Justin Dix (University of Southamption) concluded that the ice sheet didn’t stretch across the Atlantic Ocean for much of the year.

In a 2008 study of the relevant paleoceanographic data, Kieran Westley and Justin Dix concluded that "it is clear from the paleoceanographic and paleo-environmental data that the LGM North Atlantic does not fit the descriptions provided by the proponents of the Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis. Although ice use and sea mammal hunting may have been important in other contexts, in this instance, the conditions militate against an ice-edge-following, maritime-adapted European population reaching the Americas."

"The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A View from the Ocean"


According to the Solutrean hypothesis, people of the Solutrean culture, 21,000 to 17,000 years ago, in Ice Age Europe migrated to North America by boat along the pack ice of the north Atlantic Ocean. They brought their methods of making stone tools with them and provided the basis for the later (c. 13,000 years ago) Clovis technology that spread throughout North America. The hypothesis is based on similarities between European Solutrean and Clovis lithic technologies. Supporters of the Solutrean hypothesis refer to recent archaeological finds such as those at Cactus Hill in Virginia, Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, and Miles Point in Maryland as evidence of a transitional phase between Solutrean lithic technology and what later became Clovis technology. In 2009, anthropologist David J. Meltzer criticized the hypothesis, stating, "Few if any archaeologists—or, for that matter, geneticists, linguists, or physical anthropologists—take seriously the idea of a Solutrean colonization of America."

.]]The hypothesis proposes that Ice Age Europeans could have crossed the North Atlantic along the edge of the pack ice that extended from the Atlantic coast of France to during the last glacial maximum. The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft, using skills similar to those of the modern people, hauling out on ice floes at night, getting fresh water by melting ice or the first-frozen parts of , getting food by catching seals and fish, and using as heating fuel. Among other evidence backing up this hypothesis is the discovery among the Solutrean toolkit of bone needles, very similar to those traditionally used by the modern-day . As well as enabling the manufacture of waterproof clothing from animal skins, the technology could, in theory, have been used to construct kayaks from the same animal skins. However, a 2008 study (see below) argues that the conditions were not favorable for such a crossing.

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The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A View from the Ocean

Another challenge to the hypothesis involves the apparent lack of cultural or artistic practices being passed on from Solutrean culture to Clovis culture, for instance the style of Solutrean artwork found at in Spain and in France. In response, Bradley and Stanford contend that it was "a very specific subset of the Solutrean who formed the parent group that adapted to a maritime environment and eventually made it across the north Atlantic ice-front to colonize the east coast of the Americas" and that this group may not have shared all Solutrean cultural traits.

"The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A View from ..

The hypothesis proposes that Europeans could have crossed the North Atlantic along the edge of the pack ice that extended from the Atlantic coast of France to during the . The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft, using skills similar to those of the modern people, hauling out on ice floes at night, getting fresh water by melting ice or the first-frozen parts of , getting food by catching seals and fish, and using as heating fuel. Among other evidence backing up this hypothesis is the discovery among the Solutrean toolkit of bone needles, very similar to those traditionally used by the modern-day . As well as enabling the manufacture of waterproof clothing from animal skins, the technology could, in theory, have been used to construct from the same animal skins. However, a 2008 study (see below) argues that the conditions were not favorable for such a crossing.

The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A view from the ocean

At La Riera Cave, a two-hour walk from the pleniglacial shore of the Cantabrian Sea during the Solutrean, we documented evidence of significant marine mollusc collection and minor fishing (of salmon and trout, which are anadromous to varying degrees and could have been taken at the shore or in nearby estuaries or freshwater streams)(Straus & Clark 1986). Similar evidence exists at other Solutrean sites in the region (e.g., Cova Rosa, Altamira), and presages a major boom in aquatic resource exploitation during the Magdalenian (e.g., Freeman 1973). However, there is no evidence in Cantabrian Spain (or elsewhere) for Solutrean pre- dation on deep sea fish or marine mammals. (There is one rear first phalanx of a common seal in the Solutrean collection from Obermaier's 1924-25 exca- vations at Altamira that could well represent a scav- enged animal [Altuna & Straus 19761. No additional seal remains were found in the recent Altamira exca- vations of Gonzilez Echegaray and Freeman [I9961 .) Humans were certainly acquainted with the seacoast, as attested by the penguin drawings and seal engrav- ings of possible Solutrean age in Cosquer Cave, coastal southeast France, as well as fish and seal images in a number of other caves, such as Candamo in Asturias, La Pileta and Ardales in Andalusia, attrib- utable for stylistic and archaeological reasons to the Solutrean (Clottes & Courtin 1994). However, there are no representations of boats and no evidence what- soever either of seafaring or of the ability to make a living mainly or solely from the ocean during the Solutrean. For Vasco-Cantabria and Aquitaine, at least, this is not surprising, as the Bay of Biscay, with its very steep thermal gradient, due to the clash of polar and latitudinally depressed Gulf Stream waters off the coast of Galicia, was a cold, windy and intensely stormy sea during the Last Glacial Maxi- mum (Butzer 1986; CLIMAF' 1976). In sum, there is simply no empirical support for assertions that Solutrean people could have survived on pack ice or navigated across the open Atlantic. The Solutrean was essentially a terrestrial adaptation, despite the peri-coastal distribution of many of its Iberian sites.

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