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SLAEncyclopediaF10 - Natural Order Hypothesis …

Many claims are made for the benefits of games on affective factors such as anxiety and motivation, but few studies have directly investigated the effects of digital games on second language acquisition. An example of such a study was conducted by deHaan, Reed and Kuwada (2010), who investigated the effects of playing a digital game versus watching it on immediate and delayed recall of vocabulary by Japanese learners. Participants in the study were given a music game in which the players had to complete parts of a song by pressing controller buttons at the correct time. Participants in this study did not collaborate but were interacting only with the computer (Chapelle’s human-computer interaction; 2001). An important feature of the study, and perhaps a major limitation, is that participants did not have to understand the English in order to play the game. The authors found that playing the game resulted in less vocabulary acquisition than watching it (although both resulted in learning gains), probably as a result of the greater cognitive load of having to interact with the game. A post-experimental questionnaire revealed that there was no difference between players and watchers in terms of their mental effort, so the effects were due only to their interaction with the game. The authors argue that playing digital games and interactivity are therefore not necessarily conducive to language acquisition. However, it is of course important to understand these findings in light of the fact that the language was not a focal part of participants’ experience and that they could complete the tasks without attention to the vocabulary. It is therefore important that future studies investigate gaming environments that do involve meaningful language use. Another limitation of this study was the nature of the game that was chosen. This genre of game lacks a detailed narrative component that requires comprehension in order to respond appropriately, which is common in many adventure games, for example.

Krashen, S. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.

72), once again there isno theoretical basis for what to choose. Perhaps the most glaringomission is the lack of any reference to the Natural Order Hypothesis,which as noted previously, contained no realistically usable informationfor designing curriculum.

Natural Order Hypothesis (Stephen Krashen) Definition Hawks, Tara N

and the natural order hypothesis

The Natural Order Hypothesis The second hypothesis issimply that grammatical structures are learned in a predictable order. Once again this is based on first language acquisition research done byRoger Brown, as well as that of Jill and Peter de Villiers. Thesestudies found striking similarities in the order in which children acquiredcertain grammatical morphemes. Krashen cites a series of studiesby Dulay and Burt which show that a group of Spanish speaking and a groupof Chinese speaking children learning English as a second language alsoexhibited a “natural” order for grammatical morphemes which did not differbetween the two groups. A rather lengthy end-note directs readersto further research in first and second language acquisition, but somewhatundercuts the basic hypothesis by showing limitations to the concept ofan order of acquisition.


Gregg argues that Krashenhas no basis for separating grammatical morphemes from, for example, phonology. Although Krashen only briefly mentions the existence of other parallel“streams” of acquisition in The Natural Approach, their very existencerules out any order that might be used in instruction. The basicidea of a simple linear order of acquisition is extremely unlikely, Greggreminds us. In addition, if there are individual differences thenthe hypothesis is not provable, falsifiable, and in the end, not useful.

The Monitor Hypothesis: Definition and Criticism

please clarify what are the names of four stages of natural order hypothesis


Once beyond one-word answersto questions, the Natural Approach ventures out onto thin ice by suggestingelicited productions. These take the form of open-ended sentences,open dialogs and even prefabricated patterns (p.84). These formatsnecessarily involve explicit use of grammar, which violates every hypothesisof the Monitor Model. The authors write this off as training foroptimal Monitor use (p.71, 142), despite Krashen’s promotion of “Monitor-free”production. Even if a teacher were to set off in this direction andbegin to introduce a “structure of the day” (p.


Gregg notes several problemswith this hypothesis as well. Among others, Krashen seems to indicatethat perhaps the affective filter is associated with the emotional upheavaland hypersensitivity of puberty, but Gregg notes that this would indicatethat the filter would slowly disappear in adulthood, which Krashen doesnot allow for (p.92). He also remarks on several operational details,such as the fact that simply not being unmotivated would be the same asbeing highly motivated in this hypothesis – neither is the negative stateof being unmotivated. Also, he questions how this filter would selectivelychoose certain “parts of a language” to reject (p.94).

Learn about Stephen Krashen's monitor hypothesis as well as the major criticism of the ..
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What is the natural order hypothesis

Interaction is the term used to refer to the interpersonal activity that takes place both face-to-face and electronically between people or between people and computer, as well as the intrapersonal activity that occurs within our minds (Chapelle, 2001). Interaction in the foreign language has been found to contribute to language acquisition. Interaction helps generate comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985), encourages negotiation of meaning (Pica, 1994), facilitates noticing (Schmidt, 1990), produces negative feedback (Schmidt ibid), and encourages output (Swain, 1985). Swain’s Output Hypothesis (1985) posits that for successful second language acquisition to occur comprehensible input alone is insufficient but learners must also be given opportunities to try out new language and produce comprehensible output during interaction, which, in turn enables them to develop competence in the target language.

Language Learning and Teaching: Krashen's Input Hypothesis

Conclusions Krashen seemed to be on theright track with each of his hypotheses. Anyone who has learned alanguage, and especially those who have seen the grammar-translation methodin action seems to have a gut level feeling that the road to proficiencyruns somewhere outside of textbooks and classrooms. Indeed, in theliterature, every reviewer makes a special effort to acknowledge the incrediblecontribution that Krashen had made to language education. Kramsch(1995) points out that the input metaphor may be a relic of the prestigeof the physical sciences and electrical engineering, but that Krashen’sacquisition-learning dichotomy cuts at the heart of academic legitimation. She advocates a more productive discourse between applied linguists andforeign language teachers to explore and question the historical and socialforces that have created the present context.

Natural order hypothesis krashen - …


Judging from the emphasison exposure in the Natural Approach and the pattern of Krashen’s laterpublications, which focused on the Input Hypothesis, the solution to curriculumproblems seems to be massive listening. However, as noted before,other than i + 1, there is no theoretical basis for overall curriculumdesign regarding comprehension. Once again, the teacher is forcedto rely on a somewhat dubious “order of acquisition”, which is based onproduction anyway. Further, the link from exposure to productiontargets is tenuous at best. Consider the dialog presented on p.87:

.

and the natural order hypothesis’


This hypothesis is perhapsthe most appealing part of Krashen’s model for the language learner aswell as the teacher. He makes use of the gap between comprehensionand production that everyone feels, enticing us with the hope of instantbenefits if we just get the input tuned to the right level. One ofKrashen’s cleverest catch-alls is that other methods of teaching appearto work at times because they inadvertently provide this input. Butthe disappointment is that he never gives any convincing idea as to howit works. In the classroom a teacher can see when the students don’tunderstand and can simplify his or her speech to the point where they do. Krashen would have the teacher think that this was all that is necessary,and it is just a matter of time before the students are able to expressthemselves freely. However, Ellis (1992) points out that even asof his 1985 work (Krashen 1985), he still had not provided a single studythat demonstrated the Input Hypothesis. Over extended periods oftime students do learn to understand more and even how to speak, but itoften seems to take much longer than Krashen implies, indicating that thereare perhaps many more factors involved. More importantly, even giventhis beginning of i, and the goal of i + 1, indefinable as they are, thereader is given no indication of how to proceed. As shown above theNatural Order Hypothesis holds no answers, especially as to how comprehensionprogresses. In an indication of a direction that should be explored,Ellis’s exploratory study (ibid.) showed that it is the effort involvedin attempting to understand input rather than simple comprehension thatfuels acquisition.

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