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KEGG PATHWAY: Glucosinolate biosynthesis - Reference pathway

N2 - The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P-type and the resistant G-type, even though saponins are the main DBM-resistance causing metabolites in G-type plants. Indol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was induced in the G-type only. These data will aid our understanding of the biosynthesis and induction of aromatic glucosinolates at the molecular level and also increase our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underpinning defense induction in plants.

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The biosynthesis of glucosinolates - ScienceDirect

Firmenich describe it like this: “Odor reminiscent of the floral heart of jasmin.

N2 - Mutants and wild type plants of Arabidopsis thaliana were analysed for differences in glucosinolate accumulation patterns, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis and phenotype. A previously identified series of mutants, termed TU, with altered glucosinolate patterns was used in this study. Only the line TU8 was affected in shoot phenotype (shorter stems, altered branching pattern). Synthesis of IAA and metabolism were not much affected in the TU8 mutant during seedling development, although the content of free IAA peaked earlier in TUff during plant development than in the wild type. Indole glucosinolates and IAA may, however, be involved in the development of clubroot disease caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae since the TU3 line had a lower infection rate than the wild type and lines TU3 and TU8 showed decreased symptom development The decline in clubroot formation was accompanied by a reduced number of fungal structures within the root cortex and slower development of the fungus. Indole glucosinolates were lower in infected roots of TU3 and TU8 than in control roots of these lines, whereas in wild-type plants the differences were not as prominent. Free IAA and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) were increased in infected roots of the wild type and mutants with normal clubroot symptoms, whereas they were reduced in infected roots of mutants TU3 and TU8. These results indicate a role for indole glucosinolates and IAN, IAA in relation to symptom development in clubroot disease.

AB - Mutants and wild type plants of Arabidopsis thaliana were analysed for differences in glucosinolate accumulation patterns, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis and phenotype. A previously identified series of mutants, termed TU, with altered glucosinolate patterns was used in this study. Only the line TU8 was affected in shoot phenotype (shorter stems, altered branching pattern). Synthesis of IAA and metabolism were not much affected in the TU8 mutant during seedling development, although the content of free IAA peaked earlier in TUff during plant development than in the wild type. Indole glucosinolates and IAA may, however, be involved in the development of clubroot disease caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae since the TU3 line had a lower infection rate than the wild type and lines TU3 and TU8 showed decreased symptom development The decline in clubroot formation was accompanied by a reduced number of fungal structures within the root cortex and slower development of the fungus. Indole glucosinolates were lower in infected roots of TU3 and TU8 than in control roots of these lines, whereas in wild-type plants the differences were not as prominent. Free IAA and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) were increased in infected roots of the wild type and mutants with normal clubroot symptoms, whereas they were reduced in infected roots of mutants TU3 and TU8. These results indicate a role for indole glucosinolates and IAN, IAA in relation to symptom development in clubroot disease.

Biosynthesis of glucosinolates - Trends in Plant Science

T1 - Indole glucosinolate and auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. glucosinolate mutants and the development of clubroot disease

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Glucosinolates: Biosynthesis and Metabolism | …

Plants produce jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in response to many biotic and abiotic stresses (particularly herbivory and wounding), which build up in the damaged parts of the plant.

Professor Jonathan Jones - The Sainsbury Laboratory

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Biosynthesis of glucosinolates ..

AB - The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P-type and the resistant G-type, even though saponins are the main DBM-resistance causing metabolites in G-type plants. Indol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was induced in the G-type only. These data will aid our understanding of the biosynthesis and induction of aromatic glucosinolates at the molecular level and also increase our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underpinning defense induction in plants.

Indole glucosinolate and auxin biosynthesis in …

Mutants and wild type plants of Arabidopsis thaliana were analysed for differences in glucosinolate accumulation patterns, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis and phenotype. A previously identified series of mutants, termed TU, with altered glucosinolate patterns was used in this study. Only the line TU8 was affected in shoot phenotype (shorter stems, altered branching pattern). Synthesis of IAA and metabolism were not much affected in the TU8 mutant during seedling development, although the content of free IAA peaked earlier in TUff during plant development than in the wild type. Indole glucosinolates and IAA may, however, be involved in the development of clubroot disease caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae since the TU3 line had a lower infection rate than the wild type and lines TU3 and TU8 showed decreased symptom development The decline in clubroot formation was accompanied by a reduced number of fungal structures within the root cortex and slower development of the fungus. Indole glucosinolates were lower in infected roots of TU3 and TU8 than in control roots of these lines, whereas in wild-type plants the differences were not as prominent. Free IAA and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) were increased in infected roots of the wild type and mutants with normal clubroot symptoms, whereas they were reduced in infected roots of mutants TU3 and TU8. These results indicate a role for indole glucosinolates and IAN, IAA in relation to symptom development in clubroot disease.

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