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There was no effect on growth, respiration, orphotosynthetic rate.

Toxicity of 2,4-D to fish: no-observed-effect levels---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Organism Flow/ Temp Alkali- Hard- pH Formulationc Parameter Water Reference stata (°C) nityb nessb concentration (mg/litre)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pink salmon (fry) stat 10 10-34 free acid 96-h LC0 < 1 Meehan (Oncorhynchus stat 10 10-34 butyl ester 96-h LC0 < 1 et al.

 Another good cell to make and test the effect of temperature is this one:

In the suggestion above, the investigation of volume contraction of ethanol water mixtures was suggested. Of equal interest would be the effect of heat which is known to affect the strength of the H-bond; so you could see how stable the % contraction was over a range of temperatures. Safety warning: alcohol water mixtures can burn even when the amount of alcohol is less than 50% - and especially at higher temperatures.

#42 Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis …

(1973) The effects of a 2,4-D application on thebiota and water quality in Currituck Sound, North Carolina.

Permanent hard water contains Ca or Mg salts other than the hydrogen carbonates. Some tests you could do are: untreated deionized water (control), untreated tap water (real life); a comparison of untreated temporary hard water and untreated permanent hard water with boiled temporary hard water and boiled permanent hard water. You could investigate the effect of adding sodium carbonate crystals (washing soda) to temporary hard water; or the addition of adding sodium carbonate crystals (washing soda) to permanent hard water. Analysis of water hardness in major Australian cities by the Australian Water Association shows a range from very soft (Melbourne) to very hard (Adelaide). Total Hardness levels reported in various government reports are listed below:

Most metals respond to heat treatment, but the treatment temperatures are unique for different metals. A great EEI is to examine the effects of annealing, quenching, and tempering on metals. A steel bobby pin would be a useful starting point but you'd need to control the amount of heating and quenching and see how the properties vary with changes. Ask yourself "what type of treatment produces the hardest metal; and the strongest metal"? The male Blood Elf (below) from the is carrying a quenching bucket. Nothing to do with chemistry however.


Few studies are related to the effects of environmental variables,such as temperature and water hardness, on 2,4-D toxicity to fish.

Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, Earth’s average surface temperature would be near 0 degF instead of the much warmer 59 degF. Paradoxically, the top of the atmosphere would also be near 0 degF instead of the much cooler -59 degF. That is the effect of gravity on the atmosphere. Gravity does work by compressing the atmosphere, converting potential energy into thermal energy. This also gives the atmosphere a lapse rate of temperature, which distributes the thermal energy across the depth of the of air, from the warm surface layer to the coolest layer at the top. Thus, the atmosphere acts like an insulator and greenhouse gases have everything to with that.

The difference in temp between earth’s surface and the top of earth’s atmosphere is 33 degrees. That’s the greenhouse effect’s contribution to earth’s warming.

This indirect effect wouldalso result from the use of any herbicide or from other methods of landmanagement in either temperate or tropical regions.
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Oxygen is evolved during photosynthesis but the conditions for maximum reaction rate are intriguing. It can be affected by many things, including: sunlight - its intensity and wavelength, temperature, CO2 and O2 availability, water (which closes stomata and restricts CO2), and any factor that influences the production of chlorophyll, enzymes, or the energy carriers ATP and NADPH, such as pH and Mg2+ availability. You could test the effect of pH and temperature. It sure won't be linear but how well your prediction (hypothesis) and results agree will be interesting. You could also try light intensity. If you don't have a "luxmeter" to measure intensity you could take advantage of the fact that as you double the distance of the light source to the plant, the intensity is quartered (but you'd have to cut out daylight). There are a lot of variables to control and complex biochemical reactions to examine.

Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and …

While doing the above experiment I contemplated the effect of the salt bridge on the open circuit voltage (and later when under load). This may make more sense if you are doing Physics as well.

Temperature response of photosynthesis in ..

The heat of Venus and the climate on Venus may be understood if you consider the strength of the emr including gamma rays to be many times greater than earth because of its closeness to the sun. Then look at the slowness of the orbit. On earth near the equator a 48 hour day might cause temperatures above the boiling of water. On venus with a much stronger emr, the day is 243 times as long as ours. Some rocks actually boil. Because Venus is large enough to hold an atmosphere and half of the planet is not exposed to the sun, the enormous winds between hot and cold areas are created. Gamma rays and Xrays are absorbed by solids. The gases are a side effect. What gases absorb is irrelevant.

The Effect of Temperature on Opening of the Stomatal …

I am not convinced about the black-body radiation argument: (a) can a gas be considered as a black body? (b) even if the argument was true, and photon emission was reduced at lower temperatures (higher in the atmosphere), absorption should also be lower for other reasons (e.g. less Doppler broadening). Being a failed physicist I would want to see some experimental data showing the effect of temperature on photon emission – does that exist?

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