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Synthesis means exactly what it says.
Luminol is an organic compound which, when oxidized, emits light — a phenomenon known as. This is similar to the reactions thatfireflies uses to emit light, and to those used in "glow-sticks" andsome roadside emergency lights.In this reaction, a small amount of luminol (3-aminophthalhydrazide or5-amino-2,3-dihydro- 1,4-phthalazinedione) is dissolved in a basic aqueoussolution, which also contains a small amount of copper(II) sulfate. Tothis solution is added a solution of a mild oxidizing agent, which is 0.3%hydrogen peroxide in the demonstration below. (Bleach is also used in somerecipes as the oxidizing agent.) The reaction is believed to occur bythe following mechanism:The luminol is converted by the basic solution into the resonance-stabilizeddianion 1, which is oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide into thedicarboxylate ion 2, accompanied by the loss of molecular nitrogen, N2. When the molecule 2 is formed, it is in an excited (higher energy) electronic state, andsheds its "extra" energy byemitting a photon of light (h), allowing themolecule to go to its ground state form (3).In aqueous solutions, the luminol oxidation is catalyzed by the presence of ametal ion, such as iron(II) or copper(II). [In the video below, copper(II)sulfate is used in the luminol solution, which is why one of the containers islight blue.] For this reason, luminol can be used in the detection ofblood, since it can be activated by the iron in hemoglobin.Depending on how well the solution is buffered, the blue glow produced bythis reaction can persist for a couple of minutes. In the demonstration below, the light blue luminol solution and the colorlesshydrogen peroxide solution are poured together in a funnel, to which a coil ofclear tubing has been attached. !!! Hazards !!!This is a very safe reaction, as described in the procedures below. Some procedures require the use of more concentrated base solutions; the usualprecautions should be observed with those. Procedures Bassam Z.
Dr Andrea Rossi:
I saw this very beautiful link, that is a 6 minutes synthesis of the 4 hours long great demo you made at the IVA of Stockholm: very well done! In 6 minutes we can understand the highlights of that historical demonstration; here is the link, I found it on the website of Leonardo Corporation:
An example of a synthesis reaction is:
I can imagine you are very encouraged with the enhanced design of the QX reactor + controller arising after your successful Stockholm demonstration. That and the decision to rate and run the QX at 40W for the singlet, for the unit configuration of 100 QX’s, and for the 1MW plant configuration.
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Chemistry Demonstrations | Archive | Synthesis Reactions
This is a hands on activity that demonstrates how chemical reactions change the properties of a substance. In this case, borax (sodium borate) changes the sticky properties of Elmer’s glue, to make a fun to play with putty. Elmer’s glue is polyvinyl acetate, and when sodium borate is added to it, a cross-linked polymer is created giving the glue very different properties that make for a fun activity for students!
Our interests in inorganic chemistry lie in significantly improving our ability to synthesize compositionally and morphologically complex, stable, functional materials. One of our current thrusts involves increasing the applicability of colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals to high levels of chemical complexity. The second thrust focuses on the solid state chemistry of mixed anion compounds. It involves extending existing knowledge into new chemical spaces, with the general principle of synergistically tailoring chemical bonding and physical properties. The presence of secondary anions can introduce crystal structural disorder that favors ion diffusion, as well as stabilize transition metals in high formal oxidation states. These thrusts will allow us to explore the boundaries of ionic conduction, redox and intercalation chemistry of solids, as well as the limits of electrochemical energy storage.
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Synthesis Reaction Definition and Examples - ThoughtCo
The figure to the left provides an example of the insight that can be gained by operando full field transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the near edge structure (FF TXM-XANES). It demonstrates the existence of non-equilibrium pathways of electrochemical reaction in a battery electrode particle. The three images in (a) show a crystal of an electroactive oxide at a particular state during the battery reaction, together with maps indicating the concentrations of each phases that forms. The scheme in (b) shows how the particle was located during the reaction, showing it was only connected to the electrical circuit at one discrete point. The green arrows indicate the path of the X-ray beam, which results in the transmitted image. The scheme in (c) represents the chemical consequences of this discrete connection, showing the resulting flow of charge during the electrochemical reaction. In parts where contact does not exist, electron flow must proceed through the oxide phase, leading to the nonequilibrium pathways of transformation in (a). For further details see: Y.-S. Yu, J. Cabana et al. Adv. Energy Mater. 2015, 5, 1402040.
Classifying Chemical Reactions—Synthesis - YouTube
Our group is generally interested in the physical and inorganic chemistry of materials, with emphasis on redox and transport properties. We aim to provide chemistry solutions to technological problems in energy applications, with current focus on electrochemical energy storage, which is critical in the development of a green economy based on renewable sources. Our group combines approaches from classical solid state chemistry with nanoscience, with the goal of contributing to a unified field, where, for instance, synthesis of complex new compounds can rapidly be transitioned to their nano/mesoscale tailoring.
and returned to the reaction vessel, making ammonia synthesis …
Lithium is a size positive element in comparison to Nickel which can be considered as the volume negative element. T diagram the LENR process, as I see it, Draw a small circle for Lithium, leave a gap and draw a bigger circle for Nickel. Draw a series of smaller circles attached to the Lithium, these being the Hydrogen atoms, attached by there electrons which distorts the Hydrogen atom by pushing the proton off centre. Do the same for the Nickel, except these are attached by there protons which are pulled off centre by attraction and which also distorts the Hydrogen atom in an opposing direction to that of the Lithium. In the exact middle position between the Lithium and Nickel draw a small circle, this is an undistorted neutral Hydrogen atom. Then using two chains of Hydrogen atoms connect the central neutral hydrogen atom to the Nickel and Lithium by distorted atoms. One more thing is needed, I believe, to get the reaction started and this is photons. To generate the photons you need current to jump gaps between metals. Once the photons are generated by the current they are neutrals that stick to mass and acquire the charge of the particular mass, becoming charge particles (my previous explanation describes photons). The photons of the Nickel are stemless goblet shaped being negatively charged (its base facing the Nickel). The photons of the Lithium are pyramid shaped being positively charged (its apex facing the Lithium). The base of the stemless goblet and the apex of the pyramid are both of positivity but being of differing neutrals are of different charge dimensions. Thereby, to become equal in neutrality both charges travel to the middle position on there hydrogen chain where they neutralize as a potential of a photon. This activity creates an event horizon of a gravity value at some point around the central undistorted Hydrogen atom causing it to display a degree of kinetic energy which throws the proton into its electron cloud whereupon plasma is manufactured, creating photons that sustain the LENR process. If indeed this process is correct, or almost, there is, I believe, a back up method to demonstrate in a different way how a LENR process is produced. Your method uses gas which is highly energized. Flieshchman and Pons used a liquid which is less energized. Take the set up that Flieshchman and Pons used and activate the process in the dark for a duration of time then expose both the cathode and the anode to photons at the same time. This in theory will displace the absorbed Deuterium from the two plates simultaneously and create heat. I would suggest various durations regarding process and photon stimulation. Regards, Eric Ashworth
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