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Indole 3 carboxaldehyde synthesis
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) (2) is produced endogenously from naturally occurring glucosinolates contained in a wide variety of plant food substances including members of the family Cruciferae, and particularly members of the genus Brassica, whenever they are crushed or cooked. The acid environment of the gut very facilely converts it into a range of polyaromatic indolic compounds, e.g. (3, 4, 5), which appear to be responsible for many of the physiological effects observed following the ingestion of these foods. These so-called chemopreventive compounds are important because of their enzyme induction and suppression, mutagenic, carcinogenic and, particularly, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties against a variety of classes of carcinogens. These properties as well as other miscellaneous properties of these substances are critically reviewed in detail in this paper of >170 references, the second of two parts. At the present time it appears that I3C and its congeners have considerable potential as natural prophylactic anticancer agents against certain common neoplasms, especially inasmuch modern diets are increasingly deficient in these vegetable-derived substances. A short general assessment of the substantial potential of the title compounds concludes the review.
Inhibition of proliferation and modulation of estradiol metabolism: novel mechanisms for breast cancer prevention by the phytochemical indole-3-carbinol.
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Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a promising phytochemical agent in chemoprevention of breast cancer. Our present study is the first description of I3C that significantly inhibits the cell adhesion, spreading and invasion associated with an up-regulation of PTEN (a tumor suppressor gene) and E-cadherin (a regulator of cell-cell adhesion) expression in T47-D human breast cancer cells. Therefore, I3C exhibits anti-cancer activities by suppressing breast tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Metastatic breast cancer is a devastating problem, clinical application of I3C as a potent chemopreventive agent may be helpful in limiting breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
Aberrant proliferation is an early-occurring intermediate event in carcinogenesis whose inhibition may represent preventive intervention. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a glucosinolate metabolite from cruciferous vegetables, inhibits organ site carcinogenesis in rodent models. Clinically relevant biochemical and cellular mechanisms for the anticarcinogenic effects of I3C, however, remain unclear. Experiments were conducted on reduction mammoplasty derived 184-B5 cells initiated with chemical carcinogen (184-B5/BP) or with oncogene (184-B5/HER), and on mammary-carcinoma-derived MDA-MD-231 cells to examine whether (i) I3C inhibits aberrant proliferation in initiated and transformed cells, and (ii) inhibition of aberrant proliferation is associated with altered cell-cycle progression, estradiol (E2) metabolism, and apoptosis. Aberrant proliferation in 184-B5/BP, 184-B5/HER, and MDA-MB-231 cells was evident by a 55%-56% decrease in the ratio of quiescent (Q = G0) to proliferative (P = S + M) phase of the cell cycle, a 72%-90% decrease in apoptosis, and a 76%-106% increase in anchorage-dependent growth. These cells also exhibited a 88%-90% decrease in the ratio of C2 to C16alpha- hydroxylation products of E2. Treatment of 184-B5/BP, 184-B5/HER, and MDA-MB-231 cells to cytostatic dose of 50 microM I3C resulted in an 137%-210% increase in Q/P I3C ratio, a 4- to 18-fold increase in E2 metabolite ratio, a 2-fold increase in cellular apoptosis, and a 54%- 61% inhibition of growth. The preventive efficacy of I3C on human mammary carcinogenesis may be due in part to its ability to regulate cell-cycle progression, increase the formation of antiproliferative E2 metabolite, and induce cellular apoptosis.
Novel indole-3-carboxaldehyde analogues: Synthesis …
Mice that express transgenes for human papillomavirus type 16 under a keratin 14 promoter (K14-HPV16 mice) develop cervical cancer when they are given 17beta-estradiol chronically. We asked whether the antiestrogenic phytochemical indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in cruciferous vegetables, administered at physiological doses, would prevent the cervical-vaginal cancer that is promoted in these mice by high doses of estrogen. We compared mice that were fed a control diet with those that were fed a diet supplemented with 2000 ppm I3C. In the group fed the control diet, at a dose of estradiol of 0.125 mg per 60-day release, 19 of 25 transgenic mice developed cervical- vaginal cancer within 6 months, and the remainder had dysplasia. Only 2 mice of 24 in the group fed the I3C supplemented diet developed cancer, and the remainder had dysplasia or hyperplasia. I3C reduced dysplasia in the nontransgenic mice. Similar results were obtained at a higher dose of estradiol (0.250 mg per 60-day release), and I3C helped to prevent morbidity associated with retention of fluid in the bladder that frequently occurred with the higher estradiol dose. Additionally, I3C appeared to reduce skin cancer in transgenic mice. These data indicate that I3C is a useful preventive for cervical- vaginal cancer and, possibly, other cancers with a papillomavirus component.
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a major component of Brassica vegetables, and diindolylmethane (DIM) is the major acid-catalyzed condensation product derived from I3C. Both compounds competitively bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor with relatively low affinity. In Ah- responsive T47D human breast cancer cells, I3C and DIM did not induce significantly CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity or CYP1A1 mRNA levels at concentrations as high as 125 or 31 microM, respectively. A 1 nM concentration of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced EROD activity in these cells, and cotreatment with TCDD plus different concentrations of I3C (1-125 microM) or DIM (1-31 microM) resulted in a > 90% decrease in the induced response at the highest concentration of I3C or DIM. I3C or DIM also partially inhibited (
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INDOLE-3-CARBINOL (I3C) and DIINDOLYLMETHANE …
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer constitutes the second most common cancer in women. Estrogen promotes development of cervical cancer in cells infected with high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). We asked whether the phytochemical indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has anti-estrogenic activities in cervical cells with the goal of preventing cancer in HPV infected cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the cervical cancer cell line CaSki, we evaluated expression of HPV and cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzymes by Northern, RNase protection or quantitative RT-PCR. I3C binding to estrogen receptor was measured by competition with estradiol. Estrogen metabolites were measured by gas chromarography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: Estradiol increased expression of HPV oncogenes whereas I3C and the estrogen metabolite 2- hydroxyestrone (2-OHE) abrogated the estrogen-increased expression of HPV oncogenes. Both I3C and 2-OHE competed with estradiol for estrogen receptor binding. I3C enhanced gene expression of CYP enzymes responsible for 2-hydroxylation of estrogen, and induced the formation of 2-OHE. CONCLUSION: I3C has anti-estrogenic activities which should prevent cancer in cervical cells.
Sigma-Aldrich Online Catalog Product List: C11 ..
There are striking associations between certain components of the human diet and reduced incidence of experimental cancer. Thus, implementing specific changes in diet may be an effective means to control human cancer, a disease responsible for about 25% of all deaths in the United States. 'Chemoprevention' is a cancer control strategy entailing the deliberate administration of chemicals in order to prevent the occurrence of the disease. The micronutrient indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a common dietary constituent shown to modulate tumor incidence in animals and is under consideration as a possible chemopreventive agent. Central to the implementation of this strategy is understanding the mechanisms by which 'chemopreventives' exert their effects. Evidence is presented here that dietary I3C may inhibit tumor formation in the rat by a number of mechanisms, including induction of important carcinogen detoxifying enzymes such as cytochromes P-450 (CYP) and the glutathione S-transferases. For comparison, beta-naphthoflavone, a synthetic flavonoid, was found to be a less potent inducer at doses approximately equally anticarcinogenic. The major role of CYP enzymes is to form or expose functional groups on lipophilic chemicals which enter the organism, thereby serving to enhance their excretion. Some lipophilic chemicals are acted on by CYPs to 'bioactivate' them into carcinogenic forms. Evidence is also presented that I3C metabolites and BNF will inhibit this enzymatic process, thus suggesting another mechanism of protection. Unlike I3C metabolites, BNF was found to enhance bioactivation under certain conditions in vitro. It is shown that concentrations of I3C metabolites that can inhibit CYP in vitro are present in vivo following an anticarcinogenic I3C dose. Aflatoxin B1 was used as a model carcinogen throughout this study both because of its extreme potency and because it is a common contaminant of human foodstuffs, particularly in lesser developed countries. (Full text available from University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI, as Order No. AAD94-34280)
© 2018 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates
Diindolylmethane (DIM) is an acid-catalyzed condensation product of indole-3-carbinol, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, and is formed in the stomach. DIM alters estrogen metabolism and inhibits carcinogen-induced mammary tumor growth in rodents. DIM is a weak agonist for the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor and blocks the effects of estrogens via inhibitory Ah receptor-estrogen receptor cross-talk. DIM and various structural analogs were examined in H295R cells for effects on 3 cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in estrogen synthesis and/or metabolism: CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP19 (aromatase). Aromatase activity was measured by conversion of 1 beta-(3)H- androstenedione to estrone and (3)H(2)O. H295R cells were exposed to the test chemicals dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide for 24 h prior to analyses. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (0--30 nM) and DIM (0--10 microM) induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as a measure of CYP1A1 and possibly 1B1 activity, with EC(50) values of about 0.3 nM and 3 microM, respectively. DIM, but not TCDD, induced aromatase activity with an apparently maximal 2- fold increase at 10 microM; higher concentrations of DIM and many of its analogs were cytotoxic. TCDD (30 nM) significantly increased CYP1A1 and 1B1 mRNA levels, but had no effect on mRNA for CYP19. DIM (3 microM) significantly increased mRNA levels for all three CYPS: DIM analogs with substitutions on the 5 and 5' position (3 microM) induced aromatase and EROD activity, together with mRNA levels of CYP1A1, 1B1, and 19; analogs that were substituted on the central carbon of the methane group showed little or no inductive activity toward the CYPS: In conclusion, DIM and several of its analogs appear to induce CYPs via multiple yet distinct pathways in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
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