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Synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol ..

N2 - In this work, we were study the selective synthesis of GME from oleic acid and glycerol using two types of solid heteropoly acid catalysts, namely silicotungstic acid bulk (STAB) and STA-silica sol gel (STA-SG). The performance and selectivity of STAB and STA-SG in the esterification reaction have been investigated and compared to the sulphuric acid (H 2SO 4) as conventional homogeneous catalyst. The catalysts were then characterized their physical and chemical properties using BET, XRD, TEM and XPS. XPS analyses were shown a significant formation of W-O-Si, W-O-W and Si-O-Si bonding in STA-SG compared to that in STAB. The main spectra of O1s (90.74 %, 531.5 eV) followed by other O1s peak (9.26 %, 532.8 eV) were due to the presence of W-O-W and W-O-Si bonds, respectively. The STA-SG catalyst was found to be the more environmentally benign solid acid catalyst for the esterification reaction between oleic acid and glycerol due to its lower toxicity in terms of the relatively lower pH value (pH 3.7) than the STAB (pH 2.8). In addition, the ease of separation for STA-SG catalyst was attributed to its insoluble state in the product phase. The esterification products were then analysed by FTIR and HPLC. Both the H 2SO 4 and the STAB gave high conversion of 100% and 98%, but at a lower selectivity of GME with 81.6% and 89.9%, respectively. On the contrary, the STA-SG enabled a conversion of 94%, but with a significantly higher GME selectivity of 95% rendering it the more efficient solid acid catalyst.

Enzymatic synthesis of triglycerides has rarely been achieved with an immobilized lipase

Thus, by reforming at 1000 C and 240 atm, and performing the methanol synthesis at 250 C and 85 atm, the optimal conditions were a water-to-glycerol mass ratio of 1.68 with a purge ratio of 0.2.

Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Glycerol …

It was found that NaOH/γ-Al 2 O 3 was a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate and the catalyst can be easily recovered and recycled.

AB - In this work, we were study the selective synthesis of GME from oleic acid and glycerol using two types of solid heteropoly acid catalysts, namely silicotungstic acid bulk (STAB) and STA-silica sol gel (STA-SG). The performance and selectivity of STAB and STA-SG in the esterification reaction have been investigated and compared to the sulphuric acid (H 2SO 4) as conventional homogeneous catalyst. The catalysts were then characterized their physical and chemical properties using BET, XRD, TEM and XPS. XPS analyses were shown a significant formation of W-O-Si, W-O-W and Si-O-Si bonding in STA-SG compared to that in STAB. The main spectra of O1s (90.74 %, 531.5 eV) followed by other O1s peak (9.26 %, 532.8 eV) were due to the presence of W-O-W and W-O-Si bonds, respectively. The STA-SG catalyst was found to be the more environmentally benign solid acid catalyst for the esterification reaction between oleic acid and glycerol due to its lower toxicity in terms of the relatively lower pH value (pH 3.7) than the STAB (pH 2.8). In addition, the ease of separation for STA-SG catalyst was attributed to its insoluble state in the product phase. The esterification products were then analysed by FTIR and HPLC. Both the H 2SO 4 and the STAB gave high conversion of 100% and 98%, but at a lower selectivity of GME with 81.6% and 89.9%, respectively. On the contrary, the STA-SG enabled a conversion of 94%, but with a significantly higher GME selectivity of 95% rendering it the more efficient solid acid catalyst.

SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS - SlideShare

In this work, we were study the selective synthesis of GME from oleic acid and glycerol using two types of solid heteropoly acid catalysts, namely silicotungstic acid bulk (STAB) and STA-silica sol gel (STA-SG). The performance and selectivity of STAB and STA-SG in the esterification reaction have been investigated and compared to the sulphuric acid (H 2SO 4) as conventional homogeneous catalyst. The catalysts were then characterized their physical and chemical properties using BET, XRD, TEM and XPS. XPS analyses were shown a significant formation of W-O-Si, W-O-W and Si-O-Si bonding in STA-SG compared to that in STAB. The main spectra of O1s (90.74 %, 531.5 eV) followed by other O1s peak (9.26 %, 532.8 eV) were due to the presence of W-O-W and W-O-Si bonds, respectively. The STA-SG catalyst was found to be the more environmentally benign solid acid catalyst for the esterification reaction between oleic acid and glycerol due to its lower toxicity in terms of the relatively lower pH value (pH 3.7) than the STAB (pH 2.8). In addition, the ease of separation for STA-SG catalyst was attributed to its insoluble state in the product phase. The esterification products were then analysed by FTIR and HPLC. Both the H 2SO 4 and the STAB gave high conversion of 100% and 98%, but at a lower selectivity of GME with 81.6% and 89.9%, respectively. On the contrary, the STA-SG enabled a conversion of 94%, but with a significantly higher GME selectivity of 95% rendering it the more efficient solid acid catalyst.

Glycerol, glycerin or glycerine is a sugar alcohol and the central component of many lipids. Glycerin is obtained from the fermentation of sugars. Glycerin improves skin moisture levels by attracting water to the skin. Glycerin also strengthens the work of other skin lipids.

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Glycerol | Definition of Glycerol by Merriam-Webster

This study developed a new process for synthesis of glycerol carbonate via glycerolysis of urea by reactive distillation. Missing thermodynamic parameters were estimated by various group contribution methods. The results of Gibbs free energy showed that Gani's method provided the lowest deviation. Equilibrium and kinetic model parameters of the glycerolysis obtained from batch experiments were employed for the simulation of the reactive distillation using Aspen Plus® software. High conversion of glycerol was achieved by reducing reactant loss in distillate through an increase in the number of stripping and reaction stages and a decrease in the number of rectifying stages. Moreover, glycerol and urea in distillate were recycled to the reactive section by increasing reflux ratio to a reasonable value. The suitable design and operating parameters were achieved at 3 stripping stages, 3 reactive stages, no rectifying stage, reboiler heat duty of 15 kW and reflux ratio of 2. This offered 93.6% conversion of glycerol, and 90.0% yield of glycerol carbonate with 100% purity in the final product. Compared with conventional in vacuo process, reactive distillation promoted glycerol conversion by 29.1% and saved in energy consumption by 37.1%.

Glycerol 3-phosphate - Wikipedia

and and and and (2013) Reactive distillation for synthesis of glycerol carbonate via glycerolysis of urea. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 70. 103–109. ISSN 0255-2701

Scibulcom, OXIDATION COMMUNICATIONS, Journal of …

Any solid biomass including for example agricultural, city and industrial waste can be used to make synthesis gas using techniques similar to its production from . More recent developments includes a plant in the Netherlands, which is using liquid propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol), a by-product from the production of , from animal fats and vegetable oils.

Thieme E-Books & E-Journals - Synthesis / Issue

Cells have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms toadapt the metabolism to various physiological states. Rapidlygrowing cells consume nutrients at a high rate and must maintain abalance between the utilization of nutrients for ATP synthesis andanabolic development, including protein, lipid and nucleic acidsynthesis. Cancer cells use glucose at higher rates compared tonon-cancerous cells, but use a smaller fraction for oxidativephosphorylation, which enables cancer cells to incorporate agreater fraction of glucose metabolites in macromolecule synthesisinstead of expending it on carbon dioxide production (,).Consequently, metabolic programming of cancer cells is required tobe flexible, which allows the cells to adapt to variousenvironmental conditions. PKM2 is responsible for the final step ofglycolysis and is key in this process (,). Thepreferential expression and allosteric enzymatic activity of PKM2provides the cancer cells with a growth advantage ,without the accumulation of ROS.

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