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Ch19: RCO2H to RCO2R' - University of Calgary

Therefore, the ingestion of benzoic acid or its salts affects any body function or metabolic process in which glycine is involved; for example, it leads to a reduction in creatinine, glutamine, urea, and uric acid levels (US FDA, 1972a, 1973; Kubota & Ishizaki, 1991; WHO, 1996).

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8.5.2 Sodium benzoate Sodium benzoate also gave negative results in some Ames tests and in Escherichia coli in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (Ishidate et al., 1984; Prival et al., 1991).

Synthesis of procaine (novocaine; 2- ..

(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl 4-amino-benzoate, beta- ..
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After oral uptake, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized in the liver by conjugation with glycine, resulting in the formation of hippuric acid, which is rapidly excreted via the urine.

A method for the determination of benzoic acid in solid food at 0.5-2 g/kg levels involves extraction with ether into aqueous sodium hydroxide and methylene chloride, conversion to trimethylsilyl esters, and detection by GC and flame ionization (Larsson, 1983; AOAC, 1990).

Steglich Esterification - Organic Chemistry Portal

Describe the purpose of using acid in esterification for catalysis
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In the synthesis of high-purity chemical intermediates for the food,cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries only the purest grades of benzoic acid can be used.

Five per cent was used for the production of sodium and other benzoates, 3% for benzoyl chloride, and the rest for alkyd resins, benzoate esters, such as methyl benzoate, and various other products (Srour, 1989).

Although esters may be formed in ..
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while the application to the synthesis of aliphatic esters is ..

The lower alkyl esters of p- or 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (C1–C4), also named the methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl parabens, are high-boiling liquids that decompose on heating. They are widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as preservatives, bacteristats, and fungistats. Parabens also have been used therapeutically in the treatment of moniliasis, a Candida albicans infection. By the oral route, parabens are rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. The lower paraben homologues have low potential for acute or chronic systemic toxicity and are therefore approved as human food additives.

attained reasonable yields in the synthesis of methyl benzoate ..

Yomota C, Isshiki K, Kato T, Kamikura M, Shiroishi Y, Nishijima M, Hayashi H, Hukasawa Y, Yokojama T, Yoneda M, Moriguchi H, Uchiyama H, Shiro T, Ito Y (1988) [Estimation of daily intake of 8 kinds of organic acids, 4 kinds of nucleic acids, ortho-phosphate, benzoic acid, glycerol monostearate, sodium alginate, sulfur dioxide, nitrate, nitrite, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol and ammonium hydroxide from fresh foods purchased in Japan according to the market basket method.] Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 41:11-16 (in Japanese).

Esters, Organic - chemistry - Full ..

Although sodium benzoate tested negative in a cytogenetic assay with WI-38 cells in the absence of metabolic activation (US FDA, 1974), consistently positive results (in contrast to the negative results of benzoic acid) were obtained in tests on sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations with CHL/CHO and DON cells or human lymphocytes without metabolic activation (Abe & Sasaki, 1977; Ishidate & Odashima, 1977; Ishidate et al., 1984, 1988; Xing & Zhang, 1990).

Methyl esters and other esters without hydrogen ..

8.5.1 Benzoic acid Benzoic acid tested negative in several Ames tests and in one DNA damage assay with different Salmonella typhimurium strains in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (McCann et al., 1975; Ishidate et al., 1984; Nakamura et al., 1987; Zeiger et al., 1988).

Ethyl formate is used in the synthesis of vitamin B 1

COMPARATIVE KINETICS AND METABOLISM IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS After oral ingestion of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate, there is a rapid absorption (of undissociated benzoic acid) from the gastrointestinal tract in experimental animals or humans (US FDA, 1972a, 1973).

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