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Environmental stress and domoic acid production ..

The nucleus of the nerve cell is atypical compared with that of other living cells in that, although it contains the genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the DNA is not involved in the process of cell division; that is, after reaching maturity, nerve cells do not divide. (An exception to this rule are the neurons in the nose lining (olfactory epithelium).) The nucleus is rich in ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is necessary for the synthesis of protein. Three types of proteins have been identified: cytosolic proteins, which form the fibrillar elements of the nerve cell; intracondrial proteins, which generate energy for cell activity; and proteins that form membranes and secretory products. Neurons are now conceived of as modified secretory cells. Secretory granules are formed, stored in synaptic vesicles and later released as neurotransmitter substances, the chemical messengers between nerve cells.

Environmental Stress and Domoic Acid ..
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Neurotoxicity is generally manifested as a continuum of symptoms and effects, which depend on the nature of the chemical, the dose, the duration of exposure and the traits of the exposed individual. The severity of the observed effects, as well as the evidence for neurotoxicity, increases through levels 1 to 6, shown in . Short-term or low-dose exposure to a neurotoxic chemical may result in subjective symptoms such as headache and dizziness, but the effect usually is reversible. With increasing dose, neurological changes may show up, and eventually irreversible morphological changes are generated. The degree of abnormality needed for implying neurotoxicity of a chemical agent is controversial issue. According to the definition, a consistent pattern of neural dysfunction or change in the chemistry or structure of the nervous system is considered if there is well-documented evidence for persistent effects on level 3, 4, 5 or 6 in . These levels reflect the weight of evidence provided by different signs of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxic substances include naturally occurring elements such as lead, mercury and manganese; biological compounds such as tetrodotoxin (from the puffer fish, a Japanese delicacy) and domoic acid (from contaminated mussels); and synthetic compounds including many pesticides, industrial solvents and monomers.

Domoic Acid as a Neurotoxin | SpringerLink

Documents. Towards the Total Synthesis of Domoic Acid and the Isodomoic Acids-1 bytes, PDF-document
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This thesis contains three chapters concerning synthetic studies towards the alkaloids (-)-α-kainic acid; a natural product isolated from the Japanese marine algae Kainin-sou (海人草) or Digenea simplex and the close family member (-)-domoic acid isolated from another Japanese marine algae Doumoi or Chondria armata.Chapter one gives an introduction to the isolation, structure and biological activity of kainic acid, domoic acid and their analogues. Chapter one also contains a discussion of the previous syntheses of both kainic acid, domoic acid and domoic acid C. It is written with the aim of selecting key aspects of each synthesis and in turn gives a critical account of each piece of work. Chapter two is concerned with the results obtained from the experimental section of this thesis. Disclosed is a novel method for the construction of (-)-α-kainic acid via an ene-reaction on a 1,6-diene intermediate. The synthesis comprises of eight linear steps from readily available D-serine and through the use of simple methodology forms the target compound kainic acid in a satisfactory overall yield of 20 %. This thesis also investigates the possibility of installing a variety of side chains to the biologically active kainoid core via a cross-metathesis reaction on an unsaturated carbon appendage. Chapter three contains the experimental procedures carried out for the synthesis of the compounds discussed in chapter two.

This thesis contains three chapters concerning synthetic studies towards the alkaloids (-)-α-kainic acid; a natural product isolated from the Japanese marine algae Kainin-sou (海人草) or Digenea simplex and the close family member (-)-domoic acid isolated from another Japanese marine algae Doumoi or Chondria armata.

Low-Level Domoic Acid Protects Mouse Cerebellar …

Domoic acid (DomA) is a potent ..
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Studies of the effects of neurotoxic substances usually include measures of affective or personality disturbance, in the form of symptoms questionnaires, mood scales or personality indices. The NCTB, described above, includes the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a quantitative measure of mood. Using 65 qualifying adjectives of mood states over the past 8 days, the degrees of tension, depression, hostility, vigour, fatigue and confusion are derived. Most comparative workplace studies of neurotoxic exposure indicate differences between exposed and non-exposed. A recent study of styrene-exposed workers shows dose-response relations between post-shift urinary mandelic acid level, a biological indicator of styrene, and scale scores of tension, hostility, fatigue and confusion (Sassine et al. 1996).

Chapter one gives an introduction to the isolation, structure and biological activity of kainic acid, domoic acid and their analogues. Chapter one also contains a discussion of the previous syntheses of both kainic acid, domoic acid and domoic acid C. It is written with the aim of selecting key aspects of each synthesis and in turn gives a critical account of each piece of work. Chapter two is concerned with the results obtained from the experimental section of this thesis. Disclosed is a novel method for the construction of (-)-α-kainic acid via an ene-reaction on a 1,6-diene intermediate. The synthesis comprises of eight linear steps from readily available D-serine and through the use of simple methodology forms the target compound kainic acid in a satisfactory overall yield of 20 %. This thesis also investigates the possibility of installing a variety of side chains to the biologically active kainoid core via a cross-metathesis reaction on an unsaturated carbon appendage. Chapter three contains the experimental procedures carried out for the synthesis of the compounds discussed in chapter two.

Low-Level Domoic Acid Protects Mouse Cerebellar Granule Neurons from Acute ..
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