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(1973) Photodecomposition of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

(1970) [The state of the cardiovascular system in workers engaged in the production of amine salt herbicides and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester.] Azerb.

(1967) The toxic effect of the sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.
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(1980) Teratology and postnatal studies in rats on propylene glycol butyl ether and isooctyl esters of 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetic acid, Washington, US Environmental Protection Agency (60/12-80).

(1966) Photodecomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

(1973)  In vitro response of bovine cells to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid.
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The production of 2,4-D may result in the emission into the air of dichlorophenol, chloroacetic acid, and ammonia (Sittig, ed., 1980), in addition to 2,4-D vapours (Grover et al., 1976).

During 2,4-D synthesis from monochloroacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol, the latter compound as well as other ortho-chlorinated by-products can give rise to a wide variety of chorinated by-products at a high temperature and high pH.

(1973b) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

(1946) Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on experimental animals.
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2,4-D, 2,4-D alkali metal salts or 2,4-D amine salts, and 2,4-D esters The available analytical results concerning 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and its derivatives in herbicides and biological and environmental matrices were collected over a span of almost 40 years, by diverse and, until fairly recently, not sufficiently specific or sensitive methods.

The renal excretion of ofloxacin involves both glomerular filteration and tubular secretion mediated by the organic cation transport system, and the enantiomeric interaction may be explained by competitive inhibition of the transport mechanism. Similarly, enantiomeric interactions in renal tubular secretion have been suggested to account for differences in the total and the renal clearance of the enantiomers of the uricosuric diuretic 5-dimethylsulphamoyl-6,7-dichloro-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid (DBCA). Administration of the racemic drug to the monkey results in a 25% reduction in the total and the renal clearance, and a 30% reduction in the tubular secretion clearance, of the S-enantiomer in comparison to the values obtained following administration of the single enantiomer. In contrast, the corresponding reductions in the same parameters for (R)-DBCA did not achieve statistical significance.

(1971) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by soybean cotyledon callus tissue cultures.
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(1975) Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

Typical levels of 2,4-D and major impurities in technical 2,4-Da------------------------------------------------------Component % range------------------------------------------------------2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 94 - 99 2,6-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 1.5 - 0.5 2-monochlorophenoxyacetic acid 0.5 - 0.1 4-monochlorophenoxyacetic acid 0.8 - 0.2 bis(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid 2.0 - 0.1 phenoxyacetic acid trace - 0.2 2,4-dichlorophenol 0.6 - 0.1 2,6-dichlorophenol 0.048 - 0.001 2,4,6-trichlorophenol 0.14 - 0.001 2-chlorophenol 0.04 - 0.0004 4-chlorophenol 0.005 - 0.0004 water 0.8 - 0.1 ------------------------------------------------------a From: Cochrane (1981).

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in leaves of red- and blackcurrant.

Esters are formed by acid-catalysed esterification with azeotropic distillation of water (Que Hee & Sutherland, 1981) or by a direct synthesis in which the appropriate ester of monochloroacetic acid is reacted with dichlorophenol to form the 2,4-D ester (Canada, NRC, 1978).

(1963) Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for man and dog.

General Introduction Many studies of the toxicity of 2,4-D were carried out before the possible toxicological importance of manufacturing by-products, such as 2,6-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,6-D and 2,4,6-T) monochlorophenoxyacetic acid, or N-nitroso compounds, was known or appreciated.

(1975) [Urinary excretion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.] Rocz.

(1962b) [The effect of 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetic acid and triorthocresyl phosphate on the function of the upper central nervous system (bioelectric activity and conditioned reflexes).] Gig.


(1979) Distribution of 2-methyl-4- chlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in male rats: evidence for the involvement of the central nervous system in their toxicity.

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