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Cupric sulfate is the most important salt of copper.


Gypsum
The favourite white pigment of Ancient Egypt, Gypsum is a natural mineral Calcium Sulfate which performs well in water based mediums but not in oils.
Han Blue, Han Purple
Also known as Chinese purple and Chinese blue, these synthetic barium copper silicate pigments were formulated in China around 250 BCE, and used extensively by Chinese artists from the Western Zhou period (1207-771 BCE) until the end of the Han dynasty (c.220 CE).

This review is concerned with the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts

Just how labor intensive was it to obtain this dye? Modern researchers have determined that it would require 12,000 snails – yes, three zeros, to dye the trim of a single garment . By the time the 19th century rolled around, most people were pretty bummed out on having to either crush snails or milk them – yes Focher, you can milk a snail. A young upstart scientist named William Henry Perkin, just 18 at the time, was challenged by his professor to synthesize quinine – a useful anti-malarial drug. When he started in to mixing his potions, he ended up with purple instead of quinine. As an example of profiting from perceived failures, Perkin’s dye business became a stellar success. More vibrant than the previously used natural dyes, the process of chemical dye synthesis was born. Interestingly enough, aniline purple is a food safe dye also known as violet paste – you’ve probably eaten it!

Synthesis of Copper Phthalocyanine - YouTube

Another important biological application of copper compounds, such as copper sulfide is as an antifouling agent in paints.

Hi-Met has developed a process of chemical reduction of ultra-fine high purity (99.95%) copper powder with peak at 2 microns, with very low environmental impact (green process). This powder is ideal for sintering processes, production of conductive inks , pigments and catalysts.

Superceded by Prussian blue in the early 18th century, and rendered obsolete after the synthesisation of Ultramarine and the development of Cobalt Blue.
Barium Yellow
A relatively opaque white-yellow pigment, it is a form of Barium Chromate, and is also known as Lemon Yellow.

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn-Doped Copper …

The copper ions inhibit the metabolism of the fungus when they react with sulfur containing enzymes in the plant.

Composed of silica, lime, copper, and alkali, Egyptian Blue is a pre-cursor to true glass by virtue of its chemical composition and is a captivating hue. Perhaps most interesting about this pigment compound is its extraordinary luminescence when exposed to red light. Using a process known as Visible-Induced Luminescence, a red spotlight is shone on the object for a period of time, after which an infrared camera (aka “Night Vision”) is used to take a visible image of that light emitted from the pigment remnants.

. A complex rock mixture of the deep blue mineral (natural ultramarine, chemically the most complex mineral pigment) with calcite or calcspar and iron pyrite. The name ultramarine comes from (blue from over the sea), the name used to distinguish it from (mountain blue, azurite). Lapis is found in China, Tibet and Central Asia, and used in jewelry, sculpture and painting in ancient Babylonian and Egyptian cultures. It was imported to Europe by way of Venice, ground to a powder and separated from impurities for use as a very costly reddish blue pigment in medieval manuscripts and art. The pigment is decomposed by acids, but is otherwise very permanent. Simple grinding and washing produces a disappointing, pale grayish blue powder (called as seen in the dull lapis lazuli paint sold by Daniel Smith): to get a saturated color, the pure pigment must be extracted by mixing the ground mineral with melted beeswax, resins or oils, wrapping the hot bolus in cloth, and kneading in a hot dilute solution of lye (the method used since the 13th century). Modern (a synthetic lazurite) closely matches the best preserved examples of lapis lazuli pigment in old paintings, but is slightly
darker and redder.

Since the late-19th century, the majority of pigments employed by most painters are improved synthetic variants of older colours.
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Copper and the synthesis of elastin and collagen.

The fungicidal effect of copper compounds as non-systemic fungicides are such as bordeaux mixture, cupric hydroxide, copper arsenate, copper carbonate, cuprous oxide, copper-8-quinolinolate, copper oleate, copper sulfate, or copper oxychloride.

Efficient Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Copper …

The story of Egyptian Blue is the story of what is arguably the world’s first synthetic pigment. Blue was a color most revered by the ancient Egyptians and was widely used in artistic endeavors. The color of the Nile and the sky seemed appropriate to echo shades of divinity in art, which began to appear in the 3rd millennium B.C.E..

Experiment #5 Synthesis of Inorganic Pigments by Precipitation

. The less common (greenish blue) crystals of copper carbonate, called "mountain blue" () in Germany, which occurs in copper ore deposits around the world. Azurite has been used as a pigment since antiquity, but was often displaced by other synthetic pigments (such as Egyptian blue, copper calcium silicate), or used as an underpainting to the more expensive ultramarine. The crystals are usually coarsely ground (to the texture of fine sand) because the color shifts from deep blue to a weak, pale blue as particle size decreases. Azurite is decomposed by acids and is blackened by heat and some oil vehicles and varnishes. An important pigment in Europe from the 15th to 17th centuries, it fell out of use when Hungary, the primary source of the natural pigment, was conquered by the Turks. was used in modern times primarily in housepaints; artists' colors relied almost exclusively on (Prussian blue) after the mid 18th century. The synthetic color is sold as a curiosity blue watercolor paint by .

Synthesis of Substituted Amido Copper Phthalocyanine …

. The more common (green) form of hydrous copper carbonate, called or ("green azure"), found around the world in surface deposits of copper. The ancient Egyptians ground it to a powder for use as a green pigment; since Roman times the brighter have usually been preferred for artistic uses. Used in European tempera and oil paintings from the 15th to 17th centuries; it fell out of use entirely by the end of the 18th century. The color significantly lightens and shifts toward blue as particle size decreases, and it is not permanent. Sold as a dull, dark green watercolor paint by .

Patent US7411080 - Direct synthesis of copper …

Cennino Cennini in his says 'the best bones are from the second joints and wings of fowls and capons; the older they are, the better; put them into the fire just as you find them under the table.' It was used as a ground for panels.
Bremen Blue
A synthetic copper blue pigment without the permanency of Azurite.

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