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Structures of fentanyl, ocfentanil, and carfentanil

Hunter et al. [] developed and validated the first chromatographic method for determining carfentanil and naltrexone in goat plasma. Plasma samples were extracted two times with toluene after pretreatment with 1 M NaOH. The extracts were dried under N2 in a warm water bath and injected into the LC–MS chromatographic system. The analysis was isocratically performed with acetonitrile/(10 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1 mM citrate) (30:70, v/v). A Zirchrom PBD column was used and the flow rate was set in 0.3 mL/min. The mass spectrometer was set at a single ion monitoring mode. The lower limit of quantification was 8.5 pg/mL for carfentanil and 0.21 ng/mL for naltrexone [].

Synthesis of carfentanil according to Janssen and Van Daele []

Like most of the members of the family of fentanyls, they are either sold as heroin to unsuspecting users or used extensively to lace heroin street samples. Despite the fact that ocfentanil was studied clinically in the early 1990s, it did not manage to find its place in clinical practice. On the other hand, carfentanil is mainly used today as an anesthetic agent in large animals. Ocfentanil and carfentanil are used and abused extensively, mainly in Europe and in the United States. As a result, they are the cause of some verified intoxication cases and deaths worldwide. This review provides information concerning chemistry, synthesis, prevalence, pharmacology, and toxicology, as well as the current legal status of these two fentanyl analogues. Analytical methods developed for the determination of ocfentanil and carfentanil in biological specimens and seized materials, as well as related intoxication and lethal cases are also presented.

Synthesis of [18 F]fluoroalkyl esters of carfentanil

In vitro metabolic pathways for carfentanil in human hepatocytes proposed by Feasel et al. []

Seized powders from three exhibits were subjected to profiling analysis via infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, GC–MS, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Spectral data for carfentanil citrate and carfentanil hydrochloride were provided in the study. The quantification of carfentanil was performed by GC combined with flame ionization detection. For the GC–MS analysis, CH2Cl2 extract of carfentanil was injected via split mode into the system with a flow rate at 36.5 cm/s of helium. A DB-1 fused silica capillary column was used. Fentanyl, furanylfentanyl, acetylcarfentanil, heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, acetylcodeine, noscapine, and diphenhydramine were detected in the seized materials along with carfentanil [].

An LC–MS/MS method was used for the analysis of the clothing extracts of two survivors of the Moscow theater siege, and urine from a third survivor. A jumper and a leather jacket were collected from one victim, a shirt from another, and two blood samples from each. A single urine sample was obtained from the third survivor. Clothing samples and blood samples were initially screened by a GC–MS system and a GC–MS/MS system, respectively, for fentanyl, cis-3-methylfentanyl, carfentanil, sufentanyl, lofentanil, and remifentanil. Clothing samples were extracted with solvent (CH2Cl2) or water and blood samples were liquid–liquid extracted with 1-chlorobutane prior to screening. Results after analysis of clothing and blood samples were negative for these substances. All clothing samples and the urine from the third victim were further cleaned with SPE according to a previously published method by Shou et al. [] prior to LC–MS/MS analysis. The SPE columns were preconditioned with methanol/water/5% acetic acid solution and after that the cartridges were washed with 5% aqueous acetic acid and methanol. Subsequently, they were eluted twice with 2% aqueous NH4OH in chloroform/isopropanol (4:1, v/v). The eluents were dried, reconstituted with acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (95:5:0.05, v/v/v) and injected to the chromatographic system. The system performed in isocratic mode with 7% of 0.05% TFA in water/93% of 0.05% TFA in acetonitrile. A Betasil Silica-100 chromatographic column was used at a flow rate of 200 μL/min [].

this research of carfentanil - Fast Company

Answer to What are the precursors used in the synthesis of carfentanil

Many analytical methods for determining carfentanil in seized materials and biological specimens have been described through the years. Some have been specifically developed for this purpose, while others within the frame of the investigation of specific carfentanil-related intoxication cases [, , , , , , , , ].

Several other reports concerning fatal cases involving carfentanil can be found on web sources. All these cases occurred in the United States [, , , , , , , ].

Fentanyls continue to replace heroin in the drug arena: the cases of ocfentanil and carfentanil
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#carfentanil hashtag on Twitter

In 2017, carfentanil was confirmed as the cause of death in two intoxication cases in Florida. In the first case, a 34-year-old man was found dead in the driver’s seat of a van. A syringe, spoon, and a yellow bag containing a brown powder were found in the cup holder near the seat. He had a history of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and heroin abuse, and mild hypertensive heart disease and a mild hepatic steatosis were found at autopsy. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of carfentanil in heart blood along with furanylfentanyl, fentanyl, morphine, and hydromorphone at concentrations 1.3 ng/mL for carfentanil, 0.34 ng/mL for furanylfentanyl, 6 ng/mL for fentanyl, and ].

Heroin Epidemic's New Terror: Carfentanil - Rolling Stone

In Ohio, more than 4000 deaths linked to opioids appeared in 2016. In particular, a 36% increase from the previous year was reported. This increase was attributed to heroin and carfentanil abuse. For example, in Akron’s Summit County, nearly half of its 308 overdose deaths were attributed to carfentanil intoxication []. In Hamilton County, Ohio, law enforcement agencies recorded 50–70 intoxication cases per week in early 2016. When carfentanil appeared, the number increased to 175–200 per week [].

Amide Opioids Using the Ugi Synthesis of Carfentanil …

An 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA) detection method was published in 1989, in which the ability of sevn antibodies to fentanyl derivatives developed to react with carfentanil was investigated. The seven antibodies were evaluated in vivo for their binding ability with fentanyl, carfentanil, and four other analogues. The ability was evaluated by measuring the concentration of carfentanil that is required to reduce maximum binding to 50%. Carfentanil cross-reacted well with only one antibody, while less satisfactory cross-reactivity was observed with the six other antibodies [].

Carfentanil: A chemical weapon sold legally in China

In September 2016, the DEA issued an alert informing the police and the public about the dangers of carfentanil. According to the DEA, local law enforcement, and first responders, several overdose deaths were linked to the drug in many parts of the country []. Because the DEA published the report on carfentanil, several intoxication deaths have been recorded throughout the states of Florida, Illinois, Colorado, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, West Virginia, New Hampshire, Virginia, and Maryland. In other states, more unconfirmed cases have been reported [].

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