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Synthesis of ATP via a proton gradient is called: A)
The F1/F0 ATPase acts as proton pump when it hydrolyses ATP, and drives 3 protons from the matrix space to the intermembrane space for each ATP that was split. The respiratory chain pumps, however, can out-perform the F1/F0 ATPase, and they create such a powerful proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane that they normally drive the ATPase in the opposite direction, forcing it to synthesise ATP instead of breaking it down.
The acetyl group enters a cyclic sequence of reactions known collectively as the . The cyclical design of this complex series of reactions, which bring about the oxidation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA to carbon dioxide and water, was first proposed by Hans Krebs in 1937. (He was awarded the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.) Acetyl-CoA’s entrance into the citric acid cycle is the beginning of stage III of catabolism. The citric acid cycle produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), and metabolic intermediates for the synthesis of needed compounds.
of ATP via a proton gradient is called
It is not sufficient to manufacture ATP in the matrix space, since it must finally be exported to the cytosol and ADP recovered in exchange. Mitochondria also accumulate phosphate from the surrounding medium to support the production of ATP. These activities are catalysed by the inner membrane transport proteins described in the previous lecture. The metabolite carriers are driven by the transmembrane proton gradient, in addition to the synthesis of ATP.
150mV may not sound very much, since it is only one tenth of the voltage available from a single torch battery. It is important to see it in molecular terms. The inner membrane lipid is only about 5 nanometres thick, so that the voltage gradient experienced by each of these proton pumps is about 30 million volts per metre. Pumping protons is hard work. When respiration grinds to a halt in the absence of ADP, it is because the respiratory complexes cannot physically force any more protons from the depleted matrix compartment into the overcrowded cytosol and intermembrane space. The proton gradient stores chemical energy which is ultimately used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
for the synthesis of ATP using a proton gradient?
We can calculate these pH and potential gradients by studying the distribution of lipophilic drugs and synthetic permeant cations across the inner membrane. The concepts are identical to those encountered in the ADME of drugs and electrophysiology: the Henderson - Hasselbach and the Nernst equations apply. This is, however, an artificial situation engineered with radioactive tracers in order to measure these gradients. In contrast to the plasmalemma, which is often permeable to potassium and chloride ions, under normal circumstances there are no permeant ions distributed in equilibrium with the mitochondrial membrane potential. The voltage across the plasmalemma has a fundamentally different origin from the voltage across the inner mitochondial membrane. The potential at the plasmalemma arises from the differing sodium and potassium concentrations inside and outside the cell, and the differing passive membrane permeabilities for these two ions. The mitochondrial membrane potential arises because the enzymes in the respiratory chain have actively transported positively charged protons from the matrix into the inter-membrane space.
Article.A burst of ATP synthesis then accompanied the disappearance of the pH In this process, called cyclic photophosphorylation, ATP is generated without the .Chemiosmotic theory of oxidative phosphorylation Transport of at least 3H+ per ATP synthesized is required, as estimated from a comparison of the following . In the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP, Which of the following satements is a correct distinction between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation?.
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