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Synthesis of Aqueous Ferrofluid.

Anisotropy from nonspherical nanoparticles orienting in an applied magnetic field causes birefringence (also known as the Cotton-Mouton effect, where the refractive index changes along axes parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field), dichroism (change in light color dependent on direction of light polarization), and Faraday rotation (the plane of linearly polarized light is rotated when a magnetic field is applied parallel to the direction of light propagation).[71,72] Birefringence causes incident linearly polarized light to become elliptically polarized at some angle to the applied magnetic field. If the birefrin-gent ferrofluid is placed in an optical polariscope, the transmitted light intensity varies with applied magnetic field magnitude and direction. Such a configuration can be used as a light shutter or as a magnetometer. After removing a magnetic field, the transient birefringence can be measured to determine the Brownian relaxation time of Eq. 4 from which the hydrodynamic nanoparticle size can be determined. Such magneto-optical relaxation measurements have also been used to determine the binding reactions of antibodies to their antigens through increases of nanoparticle size.[73]

Synthesis of two new aqueous ferrofluids is performed chemically according to Massart's procedure

Models of the ionic charge distribution around charged particles have been developed. These are based on Poisson’s electrostatic equation of charge density, which tends to order the ions around the particle; and the Boltzmann distribution, which reflects the ability of thermal energy to disorder the ions. One model treats the particle solution interface as a capacitor, with opposing sheets of opposite charge. A more satisfactory model, due to Debye and Huckel, considers a more dispersed arrangement of the charge-balancing ions in solution. The diffuse double layer has an electrical potential Y given by Y = Y0 exp (-x/k), where 1/k is the Debye length, Y0 is the potential at x = 0, and x is the distance from the charged region (solid surface). The Debye length is a useful measure of the spatial extent of the diffuse charge layer. The figure below (Paul Hiemenz, Raj Rajagopalan. Dekker, New York: 1997, p. 514), show that the Debye lengths are in the nanoscale regime and significantly reduced by increasing ionic strength. Reduction in the Debye length can facilitate the coagulation of particles as demonstrated with the gold sample.

Synthesis of an Aqueous Ferrofluid

The influence of gamma ray on the magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles was examined.

Fig. 3 shows Eq. 6 plotted together with magnetization measurements of four different ferrofluids at various temperatures.[69] At low magnetic fields, the magnetization is approximately linear with H, m=wmH, where:

The lab this week involves preparation of a ferrofluid. This is an example of nanoscale particle synthesis. Today’s lecture covers some of the issues associated with preparing particles on this size scale and their magnetic properties.

Synthesis of Aqueous Ferrofluid: Glass Rod Variation

Ferrofluid equilibrium magnetization is accurately described by the Langevin equation for paramagnetism:

Harrison, P.G Bruce, Synthesis of ordered mesoporous Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 with crystalline walls using post-template reduction/oxidation, J.

23.10.2012 · Stable ferrofluid (FF) is synthesized in an aqueous medium of ..
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