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Nour-Eldin, F. (1968) Phenols and blood coagulation. ..,2, 23–42.

In a study of the effects of various phenyl-substituted acids on the activity of glycosyl transferase (used in cerebral glycoprotein synthesis) in human cerebrospinal fluid, a 1-h incubation with phenylacetic acid (2–10 mmol/l) produced up to 91% inhibition (Ko et al., 1973).

As a primary alcohol, phenethyl alcohol exhibits hydrogen bonding with water.

The Committee concluded that none of the 43 flavouring agents in this group would present a safety concern at current estimated levels of intake. No data on toxicity were required for application of the Procedure to 42 of the 43 flavouring agents, as they were predicted to be metabolized to innocuous agents and the estimated intakes were below the human intake threshold associated with the relevant structural class. Data on the toxicity of related agents were used to evaluate 2-phenoxyethyl isobutyrate (No. 1028). Data on the toxicity and metabolism of phenethyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, phenylacetic acid, phenoxyethanol and phenoxyacetic acid and related agents were consistent with the results of the safety evaluation.

De-novo synthesis of 2-phenylethanol by Enterobacter sp

The relevant background information summarizes the key data for the safety evaluation of 39 phenethyl alcohol derivatives and four phenoxyethyl alcohol derivatives. The group of flavouring substances includes the following: phenethyl alcohol (No. 987), 28 esters formed from phenethyl alcohol or phenylacetic acid (Nos 988–999, 1008–1022 and 1025), six acetals of phenethyl alcohol or phenylacetaldehyde (Nos 1000–1001 and 1003–1006), three related phenylacetaldehydes (Nos 1002 and 1023–1024) and phenylacetic acid (No. 1007). The four phenoxyacetic acid derivatives comprise phenoxyacetic acid (No. 1026), an ester of phenoxyacetic acid (No. 1027), an ester of phenoxyethyl alcohol (No. 1028) and a homologue of phenoxyacetic acid (No. 1029) (see Table 1).

The substances in this group are structurally related because they each have a 2-phenethyl or 2-phenoxyethyl-carbon skeleton containing a primary oxygenated functional group. Studies described in more detail below indicate that the phenethyl acetals and esters in this group are readily hydrolysed to yield phenethyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde or phenylacetic acid. Also. phenethyl alcohol and phenylacetaldehyde are readily oxidized to phenylacetic acid. Therefore, all the substances in this group are eventually hydrolysed and oxidized to yield phenylacetic acid, which is excreted primarily in the urine in conjugated form. Similarly, the esters of phenoxyethyl alcohol or phenoxyacetic acid are hydrolysed to the parent alcohol or acid. Phenoxyethyl alcohol is oxidized to phenoxyacetic acid, which is excreted primarily unchanged in the urine (Williams, 1959). Given their similar pharmacokinetics and their participation in a common metabolic pathway, the substances in this group are expected to have similar toxicological profiles (see Figure 1).

Biocatalytic Synthesis of 2-Phenylethanol by Yeast Cells

Grégory Chaume et. al. Straightforward synthesis of (S)- and (R)-alpha-trifluoromethyl proline from chiral oxazolidines derived from ethyl trifluoropyruvate.. Organic Letters. 2006, 8 (26), 6123-6126.

Quantitative data on natural occurrence and consumption ratios have been reported for 13 phenethyl alcohol derivatives. The consumption ratios for phenethyl alcohol (No. 987), phenethyl acetate (No. 989), phenethyl propionate (No. 990), phenethyl hexanoate (No. 995), phenethyl octanoate (No. 996) and phenylacetaldehyde (No. 1002) are all > 1, indicating that they are consumed predominantly from traditional foods (Stofberg & Kirschman, 1985; Stofberg & Grundschober, 1987). The six flavouring agents that have consumption ratios > 1 represent 67% and 44% of the total annual volume of usage in Europe and the USA, respectively.

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De-novo synthesis of 2-phenylethanol by …

In the unlikely event that all 39 of the phenethyl alcohol derivatives (Nos 987–1025) were consumed concurrently on a daily basis, the estimated combined intake would exceed the threshold for daily human intake of compounds in structural class I (1800 µg per person). At the levels of intake associated with their use as flavouring agents, all 39 agents are expected to be metabolized efficiently, without saturating metabolic pathways. The same holds true for two of the four flavouring agents in structural class III: the estimated combined intakes of phenoxyacetic acid (No. 1026) and 2-phenoxyethyl isobutyrate (No. 1028) would exceed the threshold for daily human intake of compounds in structural class III (90 µg per person). At the levels of intake associated with their use as flavouring agents, both agents are expected to be metabolized efficiently, without saturating metabolic pathways. The other two agents, ethyl (-tolyloxy)acetate (No. 1027) and sodium 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy) propanoate (No. 1029), are not converted to a common metabolite, and there is no need to consider their combined intake from use as flavouring agents. On the basis of the evaluation of all the data, combined intake would raise no safety concern.

De-novo synthesis of 2-phenylethanol by ..

Only one phenoxyacetic acid derivative is a natural component of food. Sodium 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy) propanoate (No. 1029) has been detected in coffee (Maarse et al., 1999), but no quantitative data were available on its natural occurrence.

2-Phenylethanol CAS 60-12-8 | 807006 - Merck Millipore

Starting material for the enantioselective synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted piperazines: Synthesis, 833 (1996), and for chiral ɑ-amino phosphonates: Org. Synth., 75, 19 (1997).

Synthesis of 2-phenylethyl acetate in the presence of ..

Starting material for the enantioselective synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted piperazines: Synthesis, 833 (1996), and for chiral ɑ-amino phosphonates: Org. Synth., 75, 19 (1997).

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