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Important chemical reactions of 2,4-D
The most toxic CDD isomer, namely 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Schwetz et al., 1973; McConnell et al., 1978; Leng, 1979; Kociba & Schwetz, 1982), is not normally found in 2,4-D products (see also section 2.1.4).
Ground- nesting species will be exposed from the use of 2,4-D on rangeland and cereals; tree-nesting species will be exposed in forests. The insecticidal action of 2,4-D is low enough that the compound does not represent a hazard to beneficial insects; there is an adequate safety margin with usage at recommended levels. Although there is some disagreement in the literature about the toxicity of 2,4-D to birds' eggs, the low uptake of the material through the egg shell suggests that exposure would not affect hatching in normal use of the compound.
Volatility of 2,4-D derivatives
In every case the amount of 2,4-D absorbed by the workers was uncertain and, therefore, the data are inadequate for estimating industrial exposure to 2,4-D.
There was a temporary (1 week) reduction in total bacterial numberswith both 2,4-D dose levels in the sandy soil and with the higher levelin clay soil.
Uptake and fate of 2,4-D in the body
EFFECTS ON MAN, CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES The available clinical and epidemiological studies fall into 4 groups: (a) studies on patients treated with 2,4-D as an anticancer drug (Apffel, 1959a) or antibiotic (Seabury, 1963), (b) reports on acute 2,4-D poisoning due to voluntary or accidental ingestion of herbicides (Tables 19 and 20), (c) reports on workers (mainly men) overexposed to 2,4-D during the manufacture, processing, or use of 2,4-D herbicides, and (d) epidemiological studies on groups of people who were actually or potentially exposed as a result of herbicide spray programmes, or who lived in areas in which herbicides were used.
(1975)Bobwhite quail 23 days diet butoxyethanol 5-day LC50 > 5000 c Hill et (Colinus virginianus) 23 days diet dimethylamine 5-day LC50 > 5000 c al.
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Composition of technical 2,4-D materials
Three application rates were used, 0.25, 0.75, and 2.25 kg acidequivalent/ha, and residues of 2,4-D were measured approximately1 month after application.
Analysis of technical and formulated 2,4-D products
Field exposure Concentrations of 2,4-D that occurred during and after herbicide use in the air of the work zone of people engaged in herbicide spray operations in various use situations, are given in Table 5.
ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, AND TRANSFORMATION OF 2,4-D
General environmental exposure In large-scale studies in areas of intense 2,4-D use, about 40% of all air samples were found to contain between 0.01 and 0.1 µg 2,4-D/m3 (Grover et al., 1975).
Degradation of 2,4-D in the soil
Tuey &James (1980), in a similar study, found that the clearance of 2,4-Dfrom haemolymph, via the green gland, was three to five times greaterthan the rate of metabolism in the hepatopancreas.
Levels of 2,4-D residues in the environmment
Pritchard & James (1979) studied the renal handling of intra-venously injected 2,4-D by the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).
Exposure of bystanders to 2,4-D
These 2,4-D residues consist mainly of esters, particularly the highly volatile butyl esters (Bamesberger & Adams, 1966; Farwell et al., 1976b; Grover et al., 1976).
Estimated exposure by the general population in 2,4-D-use areas
2,4-D, at a concentration of 1 µmol/litre of plasma,was actively secreted into the glomerular filtrate of the kidneywith clearances of nearly 500 times the glomerular filtration rate.
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