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The formula: XOR = (a and not b) or (not a and b).

Now we observe that (x and y) = x and (not x or y): If x is false then both sides are false. If x is true then (not x or y) = (false or y) = y. This is true for NAND just as it's true for AND. Therefore

After synthesis and P&R, you have a binary file that is ready to be

IntroductionIn this lab you will create a Verilog description for a simple circuit,simulate your description to verify that it operates properly, and usethe Synopsys logic synthesis tools and Berkeley physical design automationtools to create a layout of your design. You will then modify thedesign slightly and repeat the process.

(a and not b) or (not a and b) =

The  consists of 16regular talks, 4 posters, 2 keynotes and 1 special session.

We developed the following tutorial based on the philosophy thatthe beginning student need not understand the details of VHDL -- instead,they should be able to modify examples to build the desired basiccircuits.

Threshold logic has been known to be an alternative to Boolean logic for over four decades now. However, due to the lack of efficient circuit implementations, threshold logic did not gain popularity until recently. This change is motivated by new and efficient alternative CMOS implementations for threshold logic and futuristic nano devices like RTDs and SETs which possess inherent threshold properties. This paper motivates the need for threshold logic, and justifies it as an alternative design technique in the post-CMOS era. We present a novel synthesis algorithm for threshold circuits based on tree matching. In comparison with the previous state of the art methods the proposed method demonstrates an improvement of 25% in the number of gates required (max improvement is 50%) and comparable circuit depth.

not (not (a and not b) and not (not a and b)) =

The Verilog language is described in the Smith and Franzon textbook andthe class notes.

is a step in the standard design cycle in which the of an is converted into the representation which captures , , , etc. A common output of this step is . Logic design is commonly followed by the step. In modern parts of the logical design may be automated using tools based on the behavioral description of the circuit.

Logic operations usually consist of boolean AND, OR, XOR and NAND operations, and are the most basic forms of operations in an electronic circuit. Arithmetic operations are usually implemented with the use of logic operators. Circuits such as a or a are examples of more complex binary operations that can be implemented using basic logic operators.

Because of this, manyof the simulation capabilities of Verilog cannot be supported by synthesis.
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not ((not a or b) and (a or not b)) =

After a thorough investigation of alternatives, I settled on two good choices for front-end synthesis: The first is a combination of the open-source verilog parser Odin-II and optimizer/mapper abc to anchor the digital synthesis flow.

NAND (not a or b, a or not b).

With a goal of increasing designer productivity, research efforts on the synthesis of circuits specified at the behavioral level have led to the emergence of commercial solutions in 2004, which are used for complex ASIC and FPGA design. These tools automatically synthesize circuits specified at C level to a register transfer level (RTL) specification, which can be used as input to a gate-level logic synthesis flow. Today, high-level synthesis, also known as ESL synthesis and behavioral synthesis, essentially refers to circuit synthesis from high level Languages like ANSI C/C++ or SystemC etc., whereas Logic Synthesis refers to synthesis from structural or functional description to RTL.

not a or b = not (a and not b) = NAND (a, not b)

However, two-level logic circuits are of limited importance in a (VLSI) design; most designs use multiple levels of logic. As a matter of fact, almost any circuit representation in RTL or Behavioural Description is a multi-level representation. An early system that was used to design multilevel circuits was LSS from IBM. It used local transformations to simplify logic. Work on LSS and the Yorktown Silicon Compiler spurred rapid research progress in logic synthesis in the 1980s. Several universities contributed by making their research available to the public, most notably SIS from , RASP from and BOLD from . Within a decade, the technology migrated to commercial logic synthesis products offered by electronic design automation companies.

a or not b = not (not a and b) = NAND (not a, b)

The current research is devoted to bridging the gap between designers and asynchronous circuits. In particular, we seek to build tools for large control circuits and for the automatic synthesis of asynchronous circuits from synchronous netlists. An example is the paper that deserved the at the ASYNC 2004:

NAND (a, not b) = NAND (a, not a or not b) = NAND (a, NAND (a, b))

Typical practical implementations of a logic function utilize a multi-level network of logic elements. Starting from an RTL description of a design, the synthesis tool constructs a corresponding multilevel Boolean network.

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