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The ten "essential" amino acids are:

Because mammals cannot synthesize enough arginine to meet the metabolic needsof infants and children, it is classified as an essential amino acid.

The other three effectors are , which carry information regarding the cellular nitrogen level.

In most cases bacteria would rather use amino acids in their environment than make them from scratch. It takes a considerable amount of energy to make the enzymes for the pathway as well as the energy required to drive some of the reactions of amino acid biosynthesis. The genes that code for amino acid synthesis enzymes and the enzymes themselves are under tight control and are only turned on when they are needed.

(1) Uridylyltransferase activity is increased

(2) PII (in complex with adenylyltransferase)is uridylylated

Some very important physiologically active amines are derived from tyrosine,and these are L-DOPA, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. The pathway fromtyrosine to norepinephrine is shown below:

The formation of epinephrine from norepinephrine involves the transfer of thehighly reactive methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine to norepinephrine:

(3) Glutamine synthetase is deadenylylated

The branch that leads towards tyrosine and phenylalanine has another branchpoint at prephenate. The only difference between the 2 resulting amino acids isthat the para carbon of the benzene ring of tyrosine is hydroxylated. Indeed, inmammals, phenylalanine is directly hydroxylated to tyrosine, catalyzed by theenzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase.

We will look at this pathway in a bit more detail, because it involves themolecule 5-phosphoribosyl--pyrophosphate (which wewill refer to as "PRPP" from now on). PRPP is also involved in thesynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, as we will soon see. In the first step ofhistidine synthesis, PRPP condenses with ATP to form a purine, N1-5'-phosphoribosylATP, in a reaction that is driven by the subsequent hydrolysis of thepyrophosphate that condenses out. Glutamine again plays a role as an amino groupdonor, this time resulting in the formation of 5-aminoamidazole-4-carboximideribonucleotide (ACAIR), which is an intermediate in purine biosynthesis.

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(4) -ketoglutarate and NH3 form glutamine and Pi

The "indole ring" is the characterizing feature of the tryptophanstructure. Note that serine is the donor of the amino group to indole to formtryptophan.

Proline, Ornithine and Arginine are derived from Glutamate

It has proven track record for their Custom Chemical Synthesis. The company has already developed products for US and Australian markets and provided them with gram level quantities to hundred kilogram quantities. Besides successfully fine tuning several rough processes in lab, Shodhana also has capabilities to develop new/novel/alternate processes. Shodhana is strong in scaling up lab process to kilogram scale and even 100's kilogram scale

Glycine is also formed in a condensation reaction as follows:

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a glycolytic intermediate, condenses witherythrose-4-phosphate, a pentose-phosphate pathway intermediate, to form2-keto-3-deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. Theenzyme involved is a synthase. This condensation product eventually cyclizes to chorismate.

ser + homocysteine -cystathionine + H2O

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cystathionine + H2O -- -ketobutyrate + cysteine + NH3

Hydroxyethyl-TPP can react withanother pyruvate to form -acetolactate, in whichcase the pathway heads toward valine and isoleucine, or it can react with -ketobutyrate,in which case the pathway leads to isoleucine.

The synthetic pathways for the essential amino acids are:

Histidine is special in that its biosynthesis is inherently linked to thepathways of nucleotide formation. Histidine residues are often found in enzymeactive sites, where the chemistry of the imidazole ring of histidine makes it anucleophile and a good acid/base catalyzer. We now know that RNA can havecatalytic properties, and there has been speculation that life was originallyRNA-based. Perhaps the transition to protein catalysis from RNA catalysisoccurred at the origin of histidine biosynthesis.

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