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Shinohara Laboratory - Nagoya University
Graphene has attracted many interests because of its excellent properties. This paper report the addition effect of graphene as conductive material in the electrode composition of capacitive deionization (CDI), a process to remove salt from water using adsorption and desorption technique driven by external applied voltage. Graphene can be synthesized in an inexpensive way from the reduction of graphite oxide (GO) by removing the oxygen-containing groups with the recovery of a conjugated structure. GO powder can be obtained from the modification of Hummers method and reduced into graphene material using thermal method. The physical and electrochemical characteristics of graphene material were evaluated and its desalination performance test was carried using a series of CDI unit cell with a potentiostat and conductivity meter by varying the feed rate and concentration of the salt solution. The salt removal efficiency was compared with that of carbon black as conductive material in a CDI electrode.
Luminescent carbon nanodots (CDs) as a new class of carbon nanomaterials have been receiving much attention due to their chemical inertness, low toxicity, good biocompatibility, and high resistance to photobleaching. Herein, CDs were first successfully synthesized by oxidation peeling of graphite microcrystallines from coal, which is a very cheap and readily available carbon source in nature. The results preliminarily show that the coal-based CDs with a size distribution of 1~4 nm are linked by a large number of oxygen-containing functional groups, and emit blue fluorescence when being excited at ultraviolet light (365 nm). Interestingly, the photoluminescence spectra of the coal-based CDs exhibit an excitation-dependent behavior. Subsequently reduction by sodium borohydride significantly enhanced the photoluminescence of the CDs with the quantum yield of 4.2%. Their unique luminescence properties indicate their potential for use in bioimaging and varieties of optoelectronic devices.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Graphite fluorides with different structural types (CyF)n (y = 2.5, 2 and 1) and room temperature graphite fluorides were studied by solid state NMR and NEXAFS. This latter synthesis allows the weakening of the C-F covalence by the coexistence of fluorinated carbon atoms having sp3 hybridization, and non-fluorinated sp2 one in the carbon layers (hyperconjugation) [1,2]. Data extracted from those two techniques are complementary providing information about the C-F bonding, weakened or pure covalent ones and the hybridization of the carbon valence states. Comparison of data obtained by different methods such as NMR, Raman and X-ray absorption results in a similar conclusion on the chemical bonding in fluorographites. The present works reviews all the possible configurations of fluorinated graphites, i.e. planar sheets with mainly sp2 hybridization in room temperature graphite fluorides and corrugated sheets with sp3 hybridization in covalent high temperature graphite fluoride. Different references such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal, graphitized carbon nanodiscs and nanodiamonds were also investigated for comparison.
Solid carbon materials are used in many important industrial sectors, ranging from household appliances to nuclear industries. The processes to obtain carbon materials uses heat treatment cycles that can reach up to 2800 oC. Particularly, solid carbons in the form of synthetic graphite are obtained by mixing coke, pitch and other additives, such as carbon black and anthracite, which results in final properties of the materíal suitable for industrial use. The pitch/coke/additives mixture can be processed by extrusion, uniaxial compression or isostatic pressing. Once molded, the “green” graphite material is submitted to controlled heat treatment to convert all organic materials into carbon. Processing details and properties of graphites have been described elsewhere. During heat treatment processing, low molecular weight gas release is the main event that takes place, which results in porosity and microcracks which affects thermal and mechanical properties of the graphite.
MAGNETIZATION OF DIAMOND-GRAPHENE FLAKES COMPOSITES …
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