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How to write a good application essay synthesis

Because of its diverse properties, both chemical and physical, zinc oxide is widely used in many areas. It plays an important role in a very wide range of applications, ranging from tyres to ceramics, from pharmaceuticals to agriculture, and from paints to chemicals. shows worldwide consumption of zinc oxide by region.

How to write a good application essay synthesis

A solvothermal method was also used by Chen [], who prepared nanocrystalline ZnO, free of hydroxyl groups. It was obtained from a reaction of zinc powder with trimethylamine -oxide (Me3N→O) and 4-picoline -oxide (4-pic→NO), carried out in an environment of organic solvents (toluene, ethylenediamine (EDA) and -tetramethylenediamine (TMEDA)), in an autoclave at 180 °C. The process involved the following reactions (11) and (14):

In the summarized application paths of ZnO are presented.

using additional activators [].

Over the past decade much work has been done on developing nanocomposites produced by the action of modified inorganic carriers with polymer matrices. Such procedures make it possible to produce new classes of polymeric materials which combine properties of both inorganic particles and organic polymer matrices (including process ability and elasticity). The MO/polymer composites produced in this way have unique electrical, thermal and optical properties, which enable their range of applications to be extended in many branches of industry [–].

Shim [] carried out modification of zinc oxide using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). A ZnO/PMMA composite was synthesized by means of polymerization . The majority of microspheres of the MO/polymer composite are produced by coupling of existing polymer chains with the inorganic surface or by polymerization on the phase boundary of inorganic particles. Shim , demonstrated that the stability of dispersion of ZnO in a monomer depends strongly on the nature of its surface, since this provides a precondition enabling dispersion of particles of the medium within drops of monomer and consequently their enclosure in PMMA. The most important condition in the production of the composite is the interphase compatibility between the inorganic compound and the polymer. For this purpose the surface of the inorganic system should be treated with a hydrophobic organic substance. The obtained inorganic-polymer composites form persistent microspheres and combine easily into highly processed polymers. Similar studies have been carried out and published by other researchers [,].

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

This work was supported by Poznan University of Technology research grant No. 32-443/2014-DS-PB.

Chang [] modified the surface of ZnO using LiCoO2. Zinc oxide covered with a layer of LiCoO2 was obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD). In their work, Chang confirmed the favourable effect of ZnO on the electrochemical yield and thermal stability of LiCoO2, which is used as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries. Covering ZnO with a layer of LiCoO2 causes an increase in the surface area of the functionalized ZnO (from 0.4 to 1 m2/g).

Modification of the surface of ZnO particles using silane was also performed by Kotecha []. The modifier used was 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. Nanoparticles of zinc oxide were obtained using zinc acetate and potassium hydroxide as substrates. The precipitate was filtered and washed with methanol, and then dried at 130 °C. In this method the silane was introduced into the system during the precipitation. Concurrently with the formation of ZnO particles, a reaction takes place between silane and ZnO. In the course of this reaction H2O is generated and a side reaction takes place, during which the pH increases to 9. The silane-covered zinc oxide particles were introduced into an aqueous suspension and exposed to UV radiation. Based on interpretation of SEM images, the researchers concluded that unmodified zinc oxide contains particles around 100 nm in diameter, forming agglomerates. The introduction of silane into the ZnO structure caused a decrease in the particle size (40–100 nm) and an increase in the diameters of the aggregates, even to the order of micrometres. The irradiated ZnO particles had a fibrous structure “resembling wool”, and offered promising catalytic properties. UV radiation also changes the character of ZnO from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Analysing the adsorption parameters, Kotecha found that the surface area of silane-modified ZnO initially increases together with the concentration of silane, until that concentration reaches a value of approximately 1–2 mol—then the surface area starts to decrease. For the irradiated ZnO samples, the value of surface area continues to increase as the silane concentration increases, reaching a maximum of approximately 130 m2/g for the highest concentration. The results of Kotecha imply that UV irradiation destroys organic domains. The resulting material has high porosity, large surface area, and hydrophilic properties.

Agnieszka Kołodziejczak-Radzimska and Teofil Jesionowski write the manuscript together.
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Fifth Assessment Report - Synthesis Report

ZnO also exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence (chiefly photoluminescence—emission of light under exposure to electromagnetic radiation). Because of this property it is used in FED (field emission display) equipment, such as televisions. It is superior to the conventional materials, sulfur and phosphorus (compounds exhibiting phosphorescence), because it is more resistant to UV rays, and also has higher electrical conductivity. The photoluminescent properties of zinc oxide depend on the size of crystals of the compound, defects in the crystalline structure, and also on temperature [–]. ZnO is a semiconductor, and thin films made of that material display high conductivity and excellent permeability by visible rays. These properties mean that it can be used for the production of light-permeable electrodes in solar batteries. It also has potential uses as a transparent electrode in photovoltaic and electroluminescent equipment, and is a promising material for UV-emitting devices [,].

Synthesis Program | Synthesis Programs

Research on the use of zinc oxide in polyester fibres has also been carried out at Poznan University of Technology and the Textile Institute in Lodz []. Zinc oxide was obtained by an emulsion method, with particles measuring approximately 350 nm and with a surface area of 8.6 m2/g. These results indicate the product’s favourable dispersive/morphological and adsorption properties. Analysis of the microstructure and properties of unmodified textile products and those modified with zinc oxide showed that the modified product could be classed as providing protection against UV radiation and bacteria.

IPCC Fifth Assessment Synthesis Report — IPCC

Zinc oxide nanowires were grown on cotton fabric by Ates [] to impart self-cleaning, superhydrophobicity and ultraviolet (UV) blocking properties. The ZnO nanowires were grown by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and subsequently functionalized with stearic acid to obtain a water contact angle of 150°, demonstrating their superhydrophobic nature, which is found to be stable for up to four washings. The UV protection offered by the resulting cotton fabric was also examined, and a significant decrease in transmission of the UV range was observed. The self-cleaning activity of the ZnO nanowire-coated cotton fabric was also studied, and this showed considerable degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. These results suggest that ZnO nanowires could serve as ideal multifunctional coatings for textiles.

Scientific Facts on Biodiversity & Human Well-being

Zinc oxide is also used in gas sensors. It is a stable material whose weak selectivity with respect to particular gases can be improved by adding other elements. The working temperature of ZnO is relatively high (400–500 °C), but when nanometric particles are used this can be reduced to around 300 °C. The sensitivity of such devices depends on the porosity and grain size of the material; sensitivity increases as the size of zinc oxide particles decreases. It is most commonly used to detect CO and CO2 (in mines and in alarm equipment), but can also be used for the detection of other gases (H2, SF6, C4H10, C2H5OH). The zinc oxide used in the production of such equipment is obtained by a variety of methods (chemical vapour deposition, aerosol pyrolysis or oxidation of metallic zinc); it is important to control the process temperature, since this determines the properties of the product [–].

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