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A genomic approach to suberin biosynthesis and cork differentiation.
In order tomodify cutin composition, the acyltransferase GPAT5 and the cytochromeP450-dependent fatty acyl oxidase CYP86A1, two enzymes associated withsuberin biosynthesis, were overexpressed.
The biosynthesis and deposition of cutin and suberin belong to the areas of plant biology about which very little is known in Arabidopsis. Neither a gene nor a mutant related specifically to these processes have been identified. The difficulties in Arabidopsis may be attributed to the fact that only small amounts of material are deposited, making the isolation of specific components challenging. These facts combined with the complex chemical isolation methods required in the analysis make direct biochemical screens for Arabidopsis mutants affected either in the quantity or quality of the cutin/suberin very difficult.
Plants | An Open Access Plant Science Journal from MDPI
No specific mutants in suberin biosynthesis and deposition have been described by now. Some plants show, however, an unusual suberin deposition. For example, cotton producing green fibers may show ectopic suberization causing their green color; this might indicate that cotton with white fibers is a mutant deficient in fiber suberization (Ryser, 1999).
Virtually nothing is known about the cellular site of suberin biosynthesis, the transport of monomers to the cell wall as well as the control of polymerization leading to the highly regular lamellar structure visible in TEM. However, it can be expected that the polymerization occurs in a organized manner, potentially involving so-called “dirigent” proteins that ensure regio-specific radical precursor coupling in lignin biosynthesis (; ).
Plants, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal.
Our main research focus is the study of the biosynthesis of suberin. Suberin is a plant cell wall modification that involves the deposition of both a poly(phenolic) and a poly(aliphatic) domain within the same tissue. As such, the deposition of suberin represents the coordinate regulation of both fatty acid metabolism (giving rise to suberin-specific aliphatic compounds) and phenylpropanoid metabolism (givin rise to suberin-specific phenolic compounds). Over the past decade, we have used chemical analyses to identify target metabolites unique to suberin and biochemical analyses to identify unique steps in their biosynthesis. We are now in a position to clone and characterize the genes that encode the enzymes for these unique biochemical steps. With these genes in hand, we will be able to ask questions about the regulation of suberization and study the mechanism(s) by which disparate pathways converge to make the unique material known as suberin.
Based on the chemical composition of suberin some key functions of its biosynthesis have been predicted and first genes could be characterized in the model plant in the last decade.
In the course of this work, a number of suberin candidate genes could be identified in the globally important crop and model species based on studies and the analysis of gene expression during physiological conditions promoting suberisation.
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fatty alcohols and aldehydes - Lipid
The primary structure of the polyester, i.e., how the suberin acids and glycerol are sequentially linked was revealed, together with the stereochemistry of the mid-chain functional groups some suberin acids have; solid-state NMR studies showed the presence of methylene chains spatially separated and with different molecular mobility; biophysical studies showed the membrane behavior of suberin acids derivatives, allowing new insights on structure-properties relationships; and a number of candidate genes were conclusively related to suberin biosynthesis.
Journal of Natural Products (ACS Publications)
Our research efforts have focused on identifying unique metabolic steps associated with the biosynthesis of aliphatic suberin monomers, as these are excellent markers for the suberization process. Specifically, we have cloned the potato cytochrome P-450 (CYP86A33) thought to be responsible for the formation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids () characteristic of aliphatic suberin, and have demonstrated its function using a forward genetics approach (see publication # 67). We have also completed preliminary characterization of the promoter (publication # 67). Similarly, in soybean, the major aliphatic components are ω-hydroxy fatty acids, and these have been shown to . Soybean contains six genes (), two of which (and ) are strongly expressed in roots. Using an -mediated gene transfer system, we are manipulating suberin levels in soybean "hairy" roots to test the hypothesis that suberin functions in the resistance of soybean to root pathogens. Importantly, soybean hairy roots have the same anatomy and suberin deposition patterns as normal roots.
The rewards for studying natural products continue to be great
how the suberin acids and glycerol are sequentiallylinked was revealed, together with the stereochemistry of the mid-chainfunctional groups some suberin acids have; solid-state NMR studiesshowed the presence of methylene chains spatially separated and withdifferent molecular mobility; biophysical studies showed the membranebehaviour of suberin acids derivatives, allowing new insights onstructure-properties relationships; and a number of candidate genes wereconclusively related to suberin biosynthesis.
vanillyl ethyl ether, 13184-86-6 - The Good Scents …
Our research efforts have focussed on identifying unique metabolic steps associated with the biosynthesis of both phenolic and aliphatic suberin monomers, as well as aspects of the macromolecular assembly of the poly(phenolic) domain. Recent metabolite profiling experiments have been used to help delineate unique steps in suberin monomer biosynthesis. We now have identified a number of unique/critical metabolic steps in suberin monomer biosynthesis, and are working toward the cloning of the genes encoding the enzymes involved. With these clones in hand we will be able to more precisely study the coordinate regulation of critical genes in suberin biosynthsis.
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