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I very strongly believe in the strong AI hypothesis.
If you answered “Yes” to the question “Are Human Subjects Involved?” on the R&R Other Project Information form, you must include at least one human subjects study record using the Study Record: PHS Human Subjects and Clinical Trials Information form or a Delayed Onset Study record.
Biological systems, and computers, can be described at multiplelevels of abstraction. At successively lower levels are the neurallevel, the biochemical level (what chemicals and what electricalpotentials are being transmitted), the chemical level (what chemicalreactions are being carried out), and the level of physics (in terms offorces on atoms and quantum phenomena). What levels above theneuron level are needed to account for intelligence is still an openquestion. Note that these levels of description are echoed in the hierarchicalstructure of science itself, where scientists are dividedinto physicists, chemists, biologists, psychologists, anthropologists,and so on. Although no level of description is more important than any other,we conjecture that you do not have to emulate every level of a human to build anAI agent but rather you can emulate the higherlevels and build them on the foundation of modern computers. This conjecture is partof what AI studies.
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Searle asks you to imagine the following scenario** : There is a room. Sometimes people come to the room with a piece of paper which they slip into the room through a slot. Then they wait a while until the same piece of paper comes back out of a room through a second slot. You soon discover that the people slipping the paper into the room are native Chinese speakers who are sending questions into the room. Let's imagine that they have written the following question:
By reviewing the probability assignments that Bostrom has just given, it becomes clear that several things have to be the case. Because the number of simulations run by a civilization capable of running them would be very great, if simulations are done, then the number of people that are simulated would be much greater than the number of people that are not simulated, which would mean that the probability that we are living in a simulated universe is almost unity. So, it becomes clear that one of two things must be the case. Either the probability that simulations are run is very small (practically null), or it is almost certain that we ourselves are living in a simulation.
About Weak and Strong Artificial Intelligence: Part I - …
Secondly, it is required for a reflection on what form artificial intelligence should take, be it a notion of “simulated intelligence,” the weak AI hypothesis, or “actual thinking,” the strong AI hypothesis....
This moves Bostrom into the main part of his argument. Although Bostrom uses some formal probability theory to make this argument here, it is unnecessary to reproduce it verbatim in order to understand the general argument that he is making. Instead, I will give a general form of the argument in prose, and reproduce a small section of the probability theory later during my critique of the argument.
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About Weak and Strong Artificial Intelligence: Part I
When the Chinese speakers receive intelligent answers to their questions, they reasonably conclude that there is an intelligent person inside the room who understands Chinese. But, in this thought experiment we are to imagine that the only person inside the room understands no Chinese and speaks only English. For the sake of discussion, we will assume it is Searle himself; you can assume (if you like) that it is you in the room. The room is full of books. Messages are passed into the room with symbols written on them. Searle's job is to look through the books until he finds the string of symbols that look exactly like the ones written on the piece of paper. When he finds that string of symbols, the book will tell him (in English) what new string of symbols he is to write on the bottom of the page, below the first string of symbols.
This dilemma is often referred to as the “Strong AI …
The Cooperative Centers on Human Immunology (CCHI) program was initiated by NIAID in 2003 to foster research in human immunology. The original program goals were defined following recommendations from several expert panels convened to identify research needs in the area of biodefense. The current CCHI program supports the translation of immunology research into clinical applications in humans, primarily in the area of infectious diseases. The program will also support a centralized infrastructure that will promote and coordinate multi-disciplinary research in human immunology. CCHI is non-overlapping and complementary to DAIT's Human Immunology Project Consortium (). While both programs focus on human immunology, CCHI supports mechanistic studies while HIPC supports data-gathering, hypothesis-generating studies.
My Hypothesis of Strong AI Bypassing Natural Language …
The CCHI program has supported many leading advances in immunology that impact our fundamental understanding of the human immune system. For example, recent studies have provided evidence that immune variability can be explained by non-heritable influences; multi-cohort analyses have identified common host signatures that can distinguish individuals with viral infections from bacterial infections or healthy controls; the gut microbiota has been shown to play a key role in antibody responses to vaccination; and Fc glycan modification of antibodies have been implicated in the regulation of the humoral immune responses in viral infections. Technological advances developed through CCHI support include: the application and further development of CyTOF to immunological research; development of Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI); Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq); and methodologies enabling integration of information about T cell receptor (TCR) specificity with information about T cell function. In addition, CCHI has supported training in sophisticated technologies for researchers across the country.
Why Did AI Research Drift From Strong To Weak AI? - …
The books function as a computer program. Each page gives instructions for how to manipulate symbols. The instructions at no point make any reference to the meaning of the symbols. (That is, nowhere will you find a sentence that gives the English translation of any of the Chinese symbols.) None of these books is anything like a Chinese-English dictionary. Instead, like a computer program itself, it instructs the reader how to manipulate the symbols based on their formal properties (their shape and position) not their meaning. If you see symbol "X" here, then write symbol "Y" there.
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