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All nitrates decompose when heated and may do so explosively.
Calcium nitrate is used in fertilizers; barium and strontium nitrates are used to color fireworks and signal flares; bismuth nitrate is used in making pharmaceuticals.
Handling, Storage, and Precautions: should be kept dry in tightly closed containers. Nitrites undergo slow oxidation to the nitrate in air. Aqueous solutions of NaNO2, which are alkaline (ca. pH 9), are unstable on prolonged storage and should be made up fresh prior to use. NaNO2 decomposes in the presence of weak acids with the evolution of brown fumes of N2O3. Since NaNO2 is classified as toxic, oral ingestion should be avoided.
Guncotton, fully nitrated cellulose is used for explosives.
Yomota C, Isshiki K, Kato T, Kamikura M, Shiroishi Y, Nishijima M, Hayashi H, Hukasawa Y, Yokojama T, Yoneda M, Moriguchi H, Uchiyama H, Shiro T, Ito Y (1988) [Estimation of daily intake of 8 kinds of organic acids, 4 kinds of nucleic acids, ortho-phosphate, benzoic acid, glycerol monostearate, sodium alginate, sulfur dioxide, nitrate, nitrite, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol and ammonium hydroxide from fresh foods purchased in Japan according to the market basket method.] Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 41:11-16 (in Japanese).
Sodium benzoate is used in the treatment of patients with urea cycle enzymopathies (i.e., hyperammonaemia due to inborn errors of urea synthesis) in order to facilitate an alternative pathway of nitrogen excretion.
Author: Subject: Preparation of Sodium Nitrite NaNO2
Synthesis of adenine from hypoxanthine and nitrite ions
The possibility was examined that nitrogen species less reduced than ammonia, such as nitrite ions (NO2-), might be utilized as a source of amino groups for amino acid synthesis. The reaction conditions are presented in Figure 6 and the results are shown in Figure 7. Nitrite can be reduced to ammonia by zinc, as indicated by the brownish color development on addition of the Nessler reagent. Free ammonia was not detected when hypoxanthine was also present in the reaction. However, ammonia not produced from nitrite, but added to the reaction together with hypoxanthine, cannot be captured by hypoxanthine to produce adenine. Hypoxanthine was able to become adenine only when it was simultaneously present in the aqueous reaction with sodium nitrite and in the presence of a reducing agent, such as zinc powder. An explanation for the observed results could be that any ammonia synthesized by reduction of the nitrite ion was immediately captured by hypoxanthine. However, color developed even in the absence of Zn. It seems probable that the nitrite ion reacts directly with the hypoxanthine to give a nitroso product that is subsequently reduced into adenine. In LC-MS analysis of the hypoxanthine-NaNO2 reaction products, a negative ion of m/z = 134 was detected at elution time 4.7 min. This fits the adenine negative ion. Its amount is 5±0.8% of the original hypoxanthine. A second peak of the same m/z appears when the reaction is done in xylene. Its identification has not been pursued further, but it fits the hypoxanthine imine with ammonia, which is equivalent in molecular weight to the adenine tautomers (). Similar reactions between uracil and nitrite reveal only traces of cytosine (Figure 8), at least an order of magnitude less than the amounts of adenine synthesized from hypoxanthine + NO2-. Therefore, the amination of hypoxanthine using nitrite is a far more efficient process than the amination of uracil.
Kroflic?, A.; Grilc, M.; Grgic?, I. Unraveling Pathways of Guaiacol Nitration in Atmospheric Waters: Nitrite, A Source of Reactive Nitronium Ion in the Atmosphere Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49 (15), 9150-9158.
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Nitro compound synthesis by nitrite substitution or nitration
Cheng, D.; Yuan, K.; Xu, X.; Yan, J. The oxidative coupling of benzylic compounds catalyzed by 2, 3-dichloro-5, 6-dicyano-benzoquinone and sodium nitrite using molecular oxygen as a co-oxidant. Tetrahedron Lett. 2015, 56 (13), 1641-1644.Kroflic?, A.; Grilc, M.; Grgic?, I. Unraveling Pathways of Guaiacol Nitration in Atmospheric Waters: Nitrite, A Source of Reactive Nitronium Ion in the Atmosphere Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49 (15), 9150-9158.
SODIUM NITRATE (NITRATE OF SODA) - …
It is sometimes used in medicine as a diuretic.), sodium nitrate (used in making potassium nitrate, fertilizers, and explosives.), silver nitrate (used in the preparation of silver salts for photography, in chemical analysis, in silver plating, in inks and hair dyes, and to silver mirrors.), and ammonium nitrate (Major uses are in fertilizers and explosives).
It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal
Among the many important reactions of nitric acid are: neutralization with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate, used widely in fertilizers and explosives; nitration of glycerol and toluene, forming the explosives nitroglycerin and trinitrotoluene, respectively; preparation of nitrocellulose; and oxidation of metals to the corresponding oxides or nitrates.
Oxidizing Agents - Organic Chemistry Portal
Sodium benzoate was readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions in several standard test systems: Modified 84% (100 mg/litre; (King & Painter, MITI test 10 days) 1983) Modified 80-90% (50 mg/litre; (Salanitro et al., Sturm test 7 days) 1988) Closed bottle 75-111% (5 mg/litre; (Richterich & test 30 days) Steber, 1989) Degradation assays using seawater as test medium ("natural water") or as inoculum (marine filter material given into a synthetic marine medium) according to an adapted Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline (301B) resulted in a degradation of 85% and 97%, respectively (10 mg/litre; carbon dioxide measurement; 28 days) (Courtes et al., 1995).
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