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SAGE Reference - Social Drift Hypothesis - SAGE …

Although Enlightenment philosophers acknowledged their debt to Newton (the world’s most towering intellectual of his time and one of history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians), he saw nothing improper with the slave trade and in 1720. When machines began reproducing human labor, the abolition of slavery also began, as it made unskilled labor uneconomical. Slavery, particularly the genocidal forms inflicted by Europe, were viable only for situations in which little professional skill was needed. Slavery worked best in mine and plantation work that used illiterate and often-expendable people. What became the USA was unique in the European age of slavery, in that tobacco operations, unlike sugar plantations, had more seasonal labor demands. Moreover, the environment of southeast North America was conducive to long-lived and fertile slaves, so that they could reproduce. Consequently, what became the USA was a , with its large slave population largely bred, not captured. People born into slavery are easier to keep enslaved than those born free, but they had to be kept illiterate and at low skill levels, or else they might desire freedom and obtain it. Late in the American era of slavery, some slaves were taught to read, but generally only one book, which justified slavery: the Bible. All the way to , apologists for slavery used Biblical passages to justify it. Many also justified antebellum slavery with economic arguments, stating that people took better care of something they owned rather than something they rented.

This was known as the social causation hypothesis, or environmental breeder hypothesis.

Whilst social disadvantage may not be the main cause of such a disorder, it certainly appears to be a contributing factor to the development of schizophrenia.
Positive and Negative Symptoms
Symptoms of schizophrenia are broken down into positive symptoms and negative symptoms.

Social drift(drift hypothesis) - DX'd - Other - …

One study took a sample of schizophrenic men and their fathers, and compared their social classes.

as where clusters of schizophrenics live support Hjem’s ideas, as the inner-city areas tend to be where the population groups of the lowest socioeconomic class are.

These include the stress from poor education, unemployment, low rewards, low income and few opportunities, which have been suggested, can lead to the disorder.
Evaluation of the environmental ‘breeder’ hypothesis
The ideas support the facts that there are more schizophrenics in inner-city areas and in lower classes, and both the social drift and social adversity ideas explain a possible link between the disorder and class

Although not everyone who lives in environmental conditions suggested by these explanations develops schizophrenia, it is still highly likely that there are these environmental triggers (rather than strict causes), it is possible that there is a biological explanation also, which requires some environmental activation for the disorder to develop.

Social drift(drift hypothesis) - Mental Health Forum

The sociogenic hypothesis (contrasting the social selection theory) suggests that it is stress factors which contribute to the disorder developing.

has been called “the Einstein of linguistics.” has been profound, and it has been interesting to stumble upon his work in diverse fields, largely related to linguistics and psychology, but he is also a major figure in philosophy. Chomsky did not find an intellectually satisfying connection between his scientific and political work, but others have. Chomsky has had an outsized influence on linguistics since the 1950s, his interactive style can be polemic, and his tremendous influence arguably delayed some directions that linguistics has taken. Darwin’s observations again found new relevance, this time in linguistics; he noted that language acquisition seemed instinctual. Chomsky observed that infant on Earth can be placed in society, and will master the language that he or she was raised with, which is one of . Darwin thought that human mental traits were developed through natural selection, and although Chomsky thought that there was an innate language “organ” in human biology, he did not pursue its evolutionary implications, and linguistics neglected that connection until recently. Since the rise of DNA analysis and new directions in linguistics that even Chomsky began taking in his old age, scientists are finding genes and brain regions closely related to language. The predominant evolutionary models have , and in the frontal lobe is closely associated with those activities. One way that scientists linked brain regions with activities and traits was when those areas have been damaged by accident or disease. In 1990, a scientist reported on a London family wherein a large fraction had severe language deficits. In 1998, and isolated the gene as the cause. with and, together with other anatomical similarities, this suggests that Neanderthals may have had spoken language.

What heads that list may well be the primary trait that led to UP’s dominance of Earth: their mastery of language. Although social communication via sound may have and perhaps even earlier, and had , and Neanderthals had , scientists strongly suspect that the mastery of language that today’s humans display probably allowed humans to rapidly develop their technology and culture. It was humanity’s first Internet: a way to communicate ideas and information in a way previously unfeasible and even unimaginable, at a level of sophistication that no other land animal ever achieved. That invention provided the opportunity for sharing complex ideas, which created positive feedback loops that allowed for quicker cultural and technological advances. That is not fanciful speculation; linguistics, the study of brain abnormalities, and genetics testing has converged on what seems the most plausible hypothesis today, although in these areas the controversies can be fierce.

(2004) showed that social adversity (adverse being the opposite of favourable) in childhood has a correlation link with schizophrenia.
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Social Causation and Social Selection

A has challenged The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis, at least as far as robbing energy from the digestive system to fuel the brain. The study compared brain and intestinal size in mammals and found no strong correlation, but there was an inverse correlation between brain size and body fat. But since human fat does not impede our locomotion much, humans have combined both strategies for reducing the risk of starvation. Whales have bucked the trend, also because being fatter does not impede their locomotion and provides energy-conserving insulation. A human infant’s brain uses about 75% of its energy, and baby fat seems to be brain protection, so that it does not easily run out of fuel. However, the rapid evolutionary growth of an energy-demanding organ like the human brain seems unique or nearly so in the history of life on Earth, and comparative anatomy studies may have limited explanatory utility. There are great debates today on how fast the human brain grew, what coevolutionary constraints may have limited the brain’s development (, , ), and scientific investigations are in their early days.

the social drift hypothesis, ..

When chimpanzees eat meat, they put large, tough leaves in their mouths. That helps them overachieve as meat eaters, as their teeth and jaws are poorly adapted for chewing meat. Mountain gorillas eat no meat at all. In the wild, great apes spend about half of their day chewing. Chimpanzees are the most carnivorous great ape, and although meat is the greatest treasure in chimpanzee societies, they often stop eating meat after chewing it for an hour or two and revert to fruit and other softer foods if they can get it. Chimpanzees when their staple, fruit, is scarce. Chimps have been seen killing monkeys, eating their organs, and then abandoning the carcasses to find more monkeys to kill. Organ meats and intestines are far easier to chew, and a poor meat chewer like a chimpanzee prefers soft meats. Just as chimpanzees prefer soft meats, predators will eat soft organs first and leave the tougher muscle for later, if they eat it at all. It depends on how plentiful the available flesh is, but the pattern across all predator groups is clear: eat the best, first, and leave the lesser quality foods to the end or let scavengers have them. It will always be a cost/benefit decision. All things being equal, the less time and energy needed to eat something, the sooner it will be eaten. If extra time and effort is needed to procure food, then the nutritional reward (primarily in energy) has to be exceptional to justify it. Evolutionary pressures have made animals into excellent accountants. The human sweet tooth is a relic of humanity’s fruit-eating ape heritage, and the desire for fatty foods reflects an adaptation to prefer that energy-richest of foods. Fat (made of hydrocarbons) is the ultimate energy windfall of all foods.

NOT collected by Wegener to support his continental drift hypothesis?

Were the dramatic changes in a result of cooked food, or was Turkana Boy as his species became hunters instead of hunted, and the stone tools softened up the meat and plant foods so that he did not need to chew as much? Wrangham co-authored a that began with . It concluded that food processing, cooking in particular, accounted for the effect. Cooked food versus raw food and the number of neurons that can be supported in a brain has been . The primary reason why Wrangham’s hypothesis was initially dismissed was that archeological evidence for fires that long ago is almost nonexistent. When was published, the earliest evidence with wide acceptance only supported fires , where Israel is today, which is more than a million years after Wrangham’s estimated timeframe. Wrangham did what all bold scientists do: he made falsifiable predictions. If it turned out that no evidence of early fires was ever found, his hypothesis could begin looking shaky.

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