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but slightly Sir William Jones’ Indo-European Hypothesis: ..
But it was Sir William Jones (l746-92), a man of vast language-learning talent and master of some thirteen languages including Arabic, basic Chinese and Sanskrit, who first propounded the notion of cognate families of languages. Having become proficient in Sanskrit during the time of his judgeship of the supreme court of judicature at Calcutta, he saw that the ancient Indian language was clearly related to the Greek and Latin he knew from his student days. His knowledge of German confirmed his view, which became the basis for the Indo-European theory, a hypothesis which stated that Sanskrit was either parent or older cousin of all the older languages of Europe. In his day Jones was known as a leading "Orientalist", but his fame rests now largely upon his anticipation of the detailed and scientific work of the l9 th century German linguists.
Sir William Jones in , (Vol. I, p. 423) also asserted the means by which the similarities in many languages, especially of the Indo-European group, is supplied by Sanskrit: "Deonagri [devanagari] is the original source whence the alphabets of Western Asia were derived."
Kingdoms of Central Asia - Indo-Europeans
Motwani goes on to question: "It is hard to understand why and how such a concept of the IE [Indo-European] languages and their invisible mother PIE has been theorized and has been endorsed by celebrated linguists like Sir William Jones. Leave the question of any PIE documents, but even her name and home address are not known." 5
Sir Jones was the first to suggest that Sanskrit originated from the same source as Latin, Greek and Persian, thus laying the foundation for the comparative study of what we now refer as the Indo European languages.In 1786, while delivering his third lecture, Sir William made the following statement which aroused the curiosity of many scholars and finally led to the emergence of comparative linguistics.
Sanskrit: Its Importance to Language - Stephen Knapp
The fact is that the pre-Classical form of Sanskrit, also known as Vedic Sanskrit, represents an oral tradition that goes back many thousands of years. According to tradition, the written form of Sanskrit was a development of only around 3000 BCE or earlier. This was done by the sages who could foresee the lack of memory the people of the future would have, which would necessitate why the Vedic texts would need to be in a written form. It was and is a most sophisticated language, which means that it had to have been in existence for many hundreds or thousands of years before we see it’s written form, first appearing in the . It is nonetheless accepted that the language of the is one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Iranian language, and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European languages. For it to still exist quite clearly in the Lithuanian language, and to see similarities of its words in so many other languages, could it be that the Proto-Indo-European language they are looking for is actually Sanskrit? Let us remember that it was only Sir William Jones who said Greek, Sanskrit and Roman languages must come from a different common source, and Thomas Young in 1813 who first introduced the term Indo-European, and linguists have been running with that ever since.
We have therefore sufficient grounds to believe that the hypothesis put forward by Sir William Jones more than two hundred year ago is correct and stands the test of linguistic evidence.There was PIE language but there was no migration of people from Anatolia: To draw an analogy, if people all over the world are using the Microsoft Windows or the VB Script, it does not mean that they have all descended from Bill Gates!
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India and the Cradle of Civilization - David Pratt
There has always been a controversy regarding whether Sanskrit was the original language, as some feel, or whether there was what has been called a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language that was the start of all other languages, which is now said to have disappeared. So let us take a look at this. First of all let us face the fact that Sanskrit is the language that composes what has been recognized as the earliest texts on the planet, such as the and the other . Secondly, it is also known that it was an oral tradition long before it became a written language. This was because the great sage Vysadeva, who compiled the main portions of the Vedic literature, could foretell that the memory of mankind would soon be greatly reduced, compared to what it had been. So there would be a need for the texts to be in written form. Thirdly, the sophistication of the language, its grammar, syntax, and so on, was highly developed. So it had to have been in existence for some time, long before most other languages, or even any other language that appeared later on, all of which were far less developed than Sanskrit. So, how could there have been a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language that was the basis of forming Sanskrit that had to have been almost as sophisticated as Sanskrit that is said to no longer exist? SANSKRIT AND THE PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE ISSUE So how did the idea come about that there must be a Proto-Indo-European language that was the origin of Sanskrit, Greek and Latin? It all started when certain researchers started to see similarities between the main languages, such as Sanskrit, Greek and Latin. Presently, there are 439 languages and dialects, of which half is considered belonging to the Indo-Aryan subbranch. Twelve languages and their derivatives are considered to be Indo-European, including Spanish, English, Portuguese, Russian, German, French, Italian, Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, and Urdu. And most of the languages in India are known derivatives of Sanskrit. It was as early as 1583 when Thomas Stephens, an English Jesuit missionary in Goa started to recognize similarities between Sanskrit, Greek and Latin. Then in 1585, Filippo Sassetti, an Italian merchant who had traveled to India, also wrote about various similarities. Next was the Dutch scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn, in 1647, who noted the similarities among these languages, including Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. He was the one who first proposed that they must all derive from a common source language, which he called Scythian. Then in the late 1760s Gaston Coeurdoux made observations of the same type, with a study of Sanskrit, Latin and Greek. There were others who had done the same thing. However, none of these men aroused much notice in their research. It was in 1786 when Sir William Jones started giving talks about the similarities between Sanskrit, Greek and Latin, along with Celtic, Gothic and Persian languages, and suggested that there was a relationship between them. That is when people started to take notice. It was in 1813 when Thomas Young first coined the phrase "Indo-European" to describe this relationship and family of languages, which then became the standard "scientific" term. Then it was Franz Bopp who produced a study of these languages, called Comparative Grammar between 1833 and 1852, that seemed to verify this relational theory. This was the beginning of the Indo-European studies as part of an academic curriculum. This went further to August Schleicher’s Compendium in 1861, and then Karl Brugmann’s Grundriss in the 1880s. From there it went further into what can be called modern Indo-European studies. We could explain how various languages are considered part of a family or group and subgroups, or branches and subbranches, through genetic identification, or what can be called shared innovations, or their structure and phonology, or what is called their evolutionary history. But we won’t indulge in all this analysis. In any case, we now have the "Indo-European Family" of languages, which is a study of the commonalities of numerous languages, rather than the attempt to try to understand what was the original or "Proto-Indo-European" language, or the seed from which all other languages began, starting with Sanskrit, Greek and Latin. So this is the difference when you begin talking about Indo-European language: Are you talking about the "family," in which case you could certainly be talking about many languages, or are you talking about what could be the original, or at least the search for the original seed language of all others? In the latter case, such a language still has not yet been identified, and maybe never will. WHERE WAS THE ORIGIN OF THE PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE?
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