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Secondary Metabolites Defend Plants against Herbivores and Pathogens
Long-chain polyterpene alcohols known as dolichols function as carriers of sugars in cell wall and glycoprotein synthesis (see Chapter 15). Terpene-derived side chains, such as the phytol side chain of chlorophyll (see Chapter 7), help anchor certain molecules in membranes. Thus various terpenes have important primary roles in plants. However, the vast majority of the different terpene structures produced by plants are secondary metabolites that are presumed to be involved in defense.
This book was developed from the proceedings of the American Chemical Society, Division of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, subdivision of Natural Products Symposium "Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Secondary Natural Products" held in Atlanta, Georgia, April 1991. The objective of the conference was to bring together people from apparently diverse fields, ranging from biotechnology, metabolism, mechanistic organic chemistry, enzymology, fermentation, and biosynthesis, but who share a common interest in either the biosynthesis or the metabolism of natural products. It is our intention to help bridge the gap between the fields of mechanistic bio-organic chemistry and biotechnology. Our thanks go to Dr. Henry Yokoyama, co-organizer of the symposium, the authors who so kindly contributed chapters, the conference participants, and to those who assisted in the peer review process. We also thank the financial supporters of the symposium: ACS/AGFD, NIH General Medical Sciences, and the agricultural, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and chromatography companies. A full list of the supporting corporations and institutions is given on the following page. Pharma-Tech and P.C., Inc. are manufacturers of instrumentation for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. We thank the Agricultural Research Service and the U. S. Department of Agriculture for granting me permission to co-organize the conference and for us to complete the book. Richard J. Petroski Susan P. McCormick USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research Peoria, IL 61604 June 10, 1992 vii CONTENTS ANTIBIOTICS Polyketide Synthetases: Enzyme Complexes and Multifunctional Proteins Directing the Biosynthesis of Bacterial Metabolites from Fatty Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Metabolites and Plant Defense285
Recent examples of metabolic and combinatorial engineering illustrate different strategies for the production of secondary metabolites in microbial cells.">
Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and SA that are signals for systemic acquired resistance to pathogens, inhibit the wound-induced, JA-induced, systemin-induced and oligosaccharide-elicited accumulation of proteinase inhibitors, by inhibiting the synthesis of JA (Doares et al, 1995).
Secondary-Metabolite Biosynthesis and Metabolism
Recent examples of metabolic and combinatorial engineering illustrate different strategies for the production of secondary metabolites in microbial cells.
Secondary metabolites also differ from primary metabolites (amino acids, nucleotides, sugars, acyl lipids) in having a restricted distribution in the plant kingdom. That is, particular secondary metabolites are often found in only one plant species or related group of species, whereas primary metabolites are found throughout the plant kingdom.
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METABOLIC PATHWAYS FOR BIOSYNTHESIS OF INDUSTRIAL …
Wounding of leaves by chewing insects induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in both wounded leaves and distal unwounded leaves; several chemical signals regulate this response -- oligosaccharides derived from polygalacturonic acid, ABA, auxin, the octadecapeptide systemin, and intermediates of the octadecanoid pathway, including linolenic acid and jasmonic acid.
Engineering of Secondary Metabolism - Annual Reviews
Plants produce a large, diverse array of organic compounds that appear to have no direct function in growth and development. These substances are known as secondary metabolites, secondary products, or natural products. Secondary metabolites have no generally recognized, direct roles in the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, solute transport, translocation, protein synthesis, nutrient assimilation, differentiation, or the formation of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids discussed elsewhere in this book.
Instead of secondary metabolite analogs, ..
An octadecanoid pathway mutant (JL5) of tomato is compromised in signaling for defense againts insect attack; this mutant is affected in octadecanoid metabolism between the synthesis of hydroperoxylinolenic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and has impaired JA accumulation (Howe et al, 1996).
Putative secondary metabolite synthesis protein - …
Metabolism1.0 Global and overview maps1.1 Carbohydrate metabolism1.2 Energy metabolism1.3 Lipid metabolism1.4 Nucleotide metabolism1.5 Amino acid metabolism1.6 Metabolism of other amino acids1.7 Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism1.8 Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins1.9 Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides1.10 Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites1.11 Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism1.12 Chemical structure transformation maps
Putative secondary metabolite synthesis protein
For many years the adaptive significance of most plant secondary metabolites was unknown. These compounds were thought to be simply functionless end products of metabolism, or metabolic wastes. Study of these substances was pioneered by organic chemists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who were interested in these substances because of their importance as medicinal drugs, poisons, flavors, and industrial materials.
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