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What are some examples of a hypothesis?
To my knowledge, nobody has ever invoked a climate change hypothesis for the mass extinction of South American mammals when the land bridge formed that , even though the formation of that land bridge probably triggered the current ice age and the North American invasions of South America. Most South American mammal species quickly went extinct when that had survived many millions of years of intercontinental invasions. It was a purely Darwinian event in which animals with greater carrying capacities prevailed. There was no big picture awareness of events by the invaders or invaded, just as there had never been during life’s history on Earth. They all just tried to survive, and previously isolated South American mammals quickly lost the game. The survivors were able to live in niches that no North American animals did, such as .
This assumption stems from the practice of industrial qualitycontrol and other application-oriented research. In such contexts, itis often necessary to accept or to reject a hypothesis (e.g., theefficacy of a drug) in order to make effective decisions.
Identifying variables is necessary before you can make a hypothesis.
Second, he notes that no scientific hypothesis is ever confirmedbeyond reasonable doubt—some probability of error alwaysremains. When we accept or reject a hypothesis, there is always achance that our decision is mistaken. Hence, our decision is also“a function of the importance, in the typically ethicalsense, of making a mistake in accepting or rejecting ahypothesis” (1953: 2): we are balancing the seriousness of twopossible errors (erroneous acceptance/rejection of the hypothesis)against each other. This corresponds to type I and type II error instatistical inference.
Hence, ethical judgments and contextual values enter thescientist's core activity of accepting and rejecting hypotheses, andthe VNT stands refuted. Closely related arguments can be found inChurchman (1948) and Braithwaite (1953). Hempel (1965: 91–92)gives a modified account of Rudner's argument by distinguishingbetween judgments of confirmation, which are free ofcontextual values, and judgments of acceptance. Since evenstrongly confirming evidence cannot fully prove a universal scientificlaw, we have to live with a residual “inductive risk” ininferring that law. Contextual values influence scientific methods bydetermining the acceptable amount of inductive risk.
There is usually one hypothesis for each question you have.
But how general are Rudner's findings? Apparently, the result holdstrue of applied science, but not necessarily offundamental research. For instance, Richard Jeffrey(1956) notes that lawlike hypotheses in theoretical science (e.g., thegravitational law in Newtonian mechanics) are characterized by theirgeneral scope and not confined to a particular application. Obviously,a scientist cannot fine-tune her decisions to their possibleconsequences in a wide variety of different contexts. So she shouldjust refrain at all from the essentially pragmatic decision to acceptor reject a hypothesis and restrict herself to gathering andinterpreting the evidence. This objection was foreshadowed by thestatistician, methodologist and geneticist Ronald A. Fisher:
By restricting scientific reasoning to gathering and interpretingevidence, possibly supplemented by assessing the probability of ahypothesis, and abandoning the business of accepting/rejectinghypotheses, Jeffrey tries to save the VNT in fundamental scientificresearch, and the objectivity of scientific reasoning.
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You must do at least one experiment to test each hypothesis.
no analysis of whatconstitutes the method of science would be satisfactory unless itcomprised some assertion to the effect that the scientist as scientistaccepts or rejects hypotheses. (1953: 2)
These conclusions help us confirm or deny our original hypothesis.
A related attempt to save the VNT is given by Isaac Levi(1960). Levi observes that scientists commit themselves to certainstandards of inference when they become a member of theprofession. This may, for example, lead to the statistical rejectionof a hypothesis when the observed significance level is smaller than5%. These community standards may eliminate any room for contextualethical judgment on behalf of the scientist: they determine whenhe/she should accept a hypothesis as established. Value judgments maybe implicit in the standards of scientific inference, but not in thedaily work of an individual scientist. Such conventionalstandards are especially prolific in theoretical research where itdoes not make sense to specify application-oriented utilities ofaccepting or rejecting a hypothesis (cf. Wilholt 2013). The VNT, andthe idea of scientific objectivity as value freedom, could then besaved for the case of individual scientific reasoning.
Difference Between Hypothesis and Aim | Difference …
Science, then, cannot be value-free because no scientist ever worksexclusively in the supposedly value-free zone of assessing andaccepting hypotheses. Evidence is gathered and hypotheses are assessedand accepted in the light of their potential for application andfruitful research avenues. Both epistemic and contextual valuejudgments guide these choices and are themselves influenced by theirresults. More than that, to portray science as value-free enterprisecarries a danger with it:
The Hybrid Hypothesis: Introduction - macroevolution
John Dupré has argued that thick ethical terms are ineliminablefrom science, at least certain parts of it (Dupré 2007). Dupré's pointis essentially that scientific hypotheses and results concern usbecause they are relevant to human interests, and thus they willnecessarily be couched in a language that uses thick ethicalterms. While it will often be possible to translate ethically thickdescriptions into neutral ones, the translation cannot be made withoutlosses, and these losses obtain precisely because human interests areinvolved. According to Dupré, then, there are many scientificstatements that are value-free but they are value-free because theirtruth or falsity does not matter to us:
The Holographic Universe - Simulation Hypothesis - …
Mass spectrometers have been invaluable for assigning dates to various rocks and sedimentary layers, as radioactive isotopes and their daughter isotopes are tested, including , , , and . Also, the ratios of elements in a sample can be determined, which can tell where it originated. Many hypotheses and theories have arisen, fallen, and been called into question or modified by the data derived from those increasingly sophisticated methods, and a few examples should suffice to give an idea of what is being discovered.
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