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Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance | Annual Review of …

Changes in farming practices such as inter-row sowing, has impacts on stubble retention such that some stubble remains standing at the start of the following season. Spore release patterns for the blackleg fungus, , are delayed as well as reduced in standing stubble compared to laying down stubble. These changes in spore release patterns has the potential to impact of disease epidemiology.

Comparison Between the Water and Salt Stress Effects on Plant Growth and Development ..

The 31 % reduction in water use by plants exposed to non-uniform 10/670 m NaCl (calculated from Table , experiment 2) was generally consistent with the declines of 21–24 % in stomatal conductance in leaves of plants exposed to 10/450 and 10/670 m non-uniform NaCl treatments, as compared with the uniform low (i.e. 10 m) NaCl control (Fig. B, experiment 1). For some halophytes at uniform high salinity (700 m), root signals have been suggested as the cause for stomatal closure (e.g. Atriplex portulacoides and Sarcocornia fructicosa; , ). The slight decrease in stomatal conductance between plants exposed to non-uniform salinities (10/450, 10/670 m) and uniform low salt controls referred to above in A. nummularia (present study) provides some evidence for root-to-shoot signalling from the root portion at high salinity. Such a signal could have conceivably been transported out of the high salinity root half via the xylem as some water uptake occurred from this side (Table ).

Halophytes - Biosalinity Awareness Project

(2010a) Effects of ozone on growth yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Over the tens of thousands of years that invertebrates have lived in the ocean depths, some have developed a symbiotic relationship with alga called 'zooxanthellae.' These brownish-colored (the best color for absorbing blue light) single cell alga utilize the host's nitrogen-laden waste products and carbon dioxide from the surrounding seawater to fuel their energy needs. Their waste products, i.e., sugars and amino acids, leak into the host's body where they are used as a food supply.

As for those in the genera Gracilaria and Halymenia, they are among the prettiest of all red algae, as are the beautiful species , and . Also showing up in the trade sometimes is , a red bubble or grape algae that is quite stunning. Most show up attached to live rock and can serve as decoration, a valuable foodstuff for herbivores or a way to export nutrients.

Halophytes are generally defined as rooted seed-bearing plants (i.e

The major ones causing economic losses in any rice growing country arebacterial blight, bacterial leaf streak, and bacterial sheath rot.

Development of varieties with high stability may thereforebe considered.· The efforts to break the riceyield ceiling (NPT rice, hybrid rice, and agronomic manipulation) need to begeared-up to attain higher yields.

At current levels of N use efficiency, the rice world will requireat least to double the 10 million tonnes of N fertilizer that are annually usedfor rice production.

(2010b) Effects of ozone on growth yield and leaf gas exchange rates of four Bangladeshi cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.).
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Salinity Stress and Salt Tolerance | InTechOpen

Salinity is a driving factor for the survival, growth, development and nutrient partitioning in plant parts of mangrove species. The studied species is known as a moderated salt tolerant species in the Sundarbans. However, climate change consequences (sea level rise, change in rainfall amount and pattern, saline intrusion due to the withdraw of fresh water flow from the upstream of the Sundarbans) may lead to increase the salinity in the studied area. The increase in salinity up to more than 25 PSU in the Sundarbans may cause threat on the natural regeneration and recruitment of this species. Therefore, sustainable flow of fresh water in the Sundarbans may protect the extinction of this species from its habitat.

Scheme of the two-phase growth response to salinity

Nutrients are essential to perform different physiological functions (such as respiration, transpiration and photosynthesis) of plants (). High salinity affects plant growth through sodium induced toxicity or by causing nutrient deficiency/disorder or a combination of those factors (). This could be the reason we observed higher RGR at 0 to 5 PSU salinity and . Ball & Pidsley () observed similar results while studying . Thus, we can conclude that salinity is a critical factor for the development, survival and growth of mangrove seedlings and that the effect of salinity depends on the species-specific salt tolerance range (, ). In low salinity conditions, mangroves usually deploy most of their energy for growth and development. Conversely, most of the energy is utilized for survival at higher salinities () to help develop salinity-induced physiological changes (). These changes could be the reason we observed comparatively higher survival and growth of seedlings at lower salinities.

LabBench Activity Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity

Figure 2. Changes in number of shoots, leaf area anddry weight in three populations of , Ferblanc (openbars), Clovelly (hatched bars) and Lake Tambour (dotted bars) under salinitytreatment of 0 ppt, 5 ppt, and 15 ppt. Data were collected at the conclusionof the experiment (Day # 84), and represent the difference between finalvalues minus initial values (using the means obtained from destructivelyharvested subsample of 12 plants per population at the initiation of thetreatment) for each respective parameter. Bars within each treatment notmarked with the same letter are significantly different (p

4.1 Salt tolerance - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank

All populations performed well under the salinitytreatments for the duration of the study. The observed responses of the studypopulations to elevated salinities could be partially explained in light offield observations which indicate that the Lake Tambour and Ferblancpopulations are associated with high salinities characteristic of abrackish-saltmarsh zone while the Clovelly population occupies the less salineenvironment of freshwater-brackish marsh zone. For instance, differences ingrowth, biomass production, and patterns of biomass partitioning in responseto salinity treatments were evident among the populations. The Clovellypopulation produced a significantly greater leaf area than the Ferblancpopulation in the 0 ppt treatment. However; in the 5 ppt and 15 ppttreatments, the Lake Tambour population had the greatest leaf area. Inaddition, the Ferblanc population produced a greater number of shoots than theClovelly population under 5 and 15 ppt salinity. One explanation is that thestudy populations may differ in allocation of

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