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Photosynthesis What role do roots play in photosynthesis?
From the Permian extinction’s devastation arose a reptilian sheep called . Fossil hunters of early Triassic sediments have been frustrated for many years, as nearly are , because it was about the Permian extinction’s only land animal survivor. There has been about why it survived when almost nothing else did. No single animal ever dominated Earth’s land masses as thoroughly as did during the early Triassic. was probably a burrower (many have likened to a pig because of that burrowing), which may have provided the shelter needed to survive the Permian holocaust. It may also have been a and could eat most surviving plants. But some think that its survival, when almost every other species died, was due to luck. Luck is a surprisingly common proposed explanation for evolutionary events and outcomes, and some creatures seemed to be in the right place at the right time while others were in the wrong place at the wrong time. The spread of was also aided by two other facts: the land masses , so could simply walk to dominance of Earth; and few predators capable of eating a survived. One (being semi-aquatic may have also helped species survive the Permian extinction), as did , but not much else did. was a , as were the dominant land animals before the Permian extinction.
The GCs are not squeamish, but they rarely resort to violence in the public arena; they know that a string of deaths and health "events" threaten to focus attention on their efforts. When the GCs’ minions engage in lethal interventions, either by direct murder or throwing people such as Dennis and letting “nature” take its course, what seems to be more important than killing the target in any particular attempt is making it appear to be something other than premeditated murder. I am not at liberty to publicly disclose details of numerous murder attempts that have been described to me either from the target or secondhand by highly credible associates, but it is not easy to murder somebody and make it look like (, , , , , and the like), and if an attempt initially fails, the assassins will not “” them like more mundane assassins will, such as Mafia hit men, as it removes any doubt that it was premeditated murder. If the target survives the initial attempt, the assassins will withdraw and try again another time, since making it look like something else is more important than achieving success with any one attempt. That is probably why some FE activists have survived numerous murder attempts. Also, a failed attempt can often have the desired effect, as it can frighten or incapacitate the target to the extent that he (almost always a man, not a woman) is no longer a threat in the disruptive technology field, FE most of all, and further action is unnecessary.
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Essay
Every aerobic aquatic animal had to solve the problem of extracting oxygen from the water, and there was diversity in that accomplishment. Key Cambrian animals such as and had very high-surface-area-to-body-volume ratios, which allowed diffusion to provide their oxygen. Immobile animals such as sponges and coral had to position themselves where oxygenated water flowed past or through them. Sponges , designed to passively draw water through them. The position and structure of reefs facilitated those oxygen-providing dynamics, so corals helped create the conditions that sustained them; the calcified exoskeletons of corals dissuaded predation built the reefs.
The Cambrian’s global ocean contained far less oxygen than today’s. Being newly and probably inconsistently oxygenated by oceanic currents was only part of the problem. The Cambrian oceans were warmer than today’s oceans, perhaps far warmer, such as 40o C and higher for the . Water’s ability to absorb oxygen declines as it gets warmer. Water heated from 10o C to 40o C will lose 40% of its ability to absorb oxygen. The phenomenon of warmer water absorbing less oxygen contributed to many instances of anoxic waters during the eon of complex life, and particularly in the warmer, earlier periods.
Photosynthesis and respiration Research Papers - …
Energy is the master resource of all organisms, all ecosystems, and all economies. When a civilization centralizes its energy consumption, which were food and wood in preindustrial civilizations, to a central city, and it has to keep expanding farther and farther from that city to obtain that energy, the is going to reduce the EROI of those increasingly distant energy resources, and hence reduce the . Also, the practices of and agriculture provide short-term agricultural yields, but the wood would be almost instantly used (about 90% of the wood imported to Rome was burned, which was the typical ratio for ancient cities). The soils became eroded, depleted, and often abandoned as the land could no longer support farming, partly because the entire process made the land more arid. If they could import water to irrigate (usually a rare situation), that could help ameliorate the process, but it took more time and effort and made it more difficult. There were no accountants, scientists, or engineers monitoring and measuring the process, but all of those dynamics would reduce the system’s EROI and surplus energy and make it less resilient, so it was vulnerable to disruptive shocks.
Rome debased its currency. Rome's was nearly pure silver in 211 BCE when it was first minted; by 269 CE, as the Empire was slowly coming apart, the coin had almost no silver at all in it. Money is only accounting, and debasing it was only a symptom of Rome’s decline, not a cause. Currency debasement is a governmental choice by which it essentially . There are arguments that it can forestall a , but it has always been used as an easy form of taxation that benefits those creating the money. All currencies for all time have been made worthless by those creating the money, as the short-term temptations for debasing a currency are too seductive. Energy is the meaningful measure of health, not money.
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In South America, its animals continued to evolve in isolation, and some huge ones appeared. In the Miocene, the flew in South American skies; it looked like a giant condor, had a seven-meter wingspan, and weighed 70 kilograms. The lived in South America in the late Miocene and early Pliocene. first appeared, as well as a , and some inhabited the large herbivore guild and looked like guild members on other continents, for another instance of convergent evolution. In Australia, the Miocene fossil record is thin, but recent findings demonstrate that all Miocene mammals were marsupials, except for bats. Kangaroos diversified into different niches; some were rat-sized and others became carnivorous. foraged in the Miocene, and marsupial lions first appeared in the Oligocene, kept growing over the epochs, and when humans arrived about 50 kya, they were . , as they still did in South America, although just how carnivorous some may have been is debated.
plants resort to respiration, ..
What seems to explain invader and endemic success with those migrations is what kind of continent the invaders came from, what kind of continent they invaded, and the invasion route. Asia contains large arctic and tropical biomes, unlike any other continent. North America barely reaches the tropics and only a finger of South America reaches high latitudes, and well short of what would be called arctic latitudes in North America. Africa’s biomes were all tropical and near-tropical. The route to was straight across at the same latitude, so the biomes were similar. About the same is true of the route to Africa from Asia. Asian immigrants were not migrating to climates much different from what they left. But the route to North America was via , which was an Arctic route. Primates and other tropical animals could not migrate from Asia to North America via Beringia, and even fauna from temperate climates were not going to make that journey, not in Icehouse Earth conditions. Oligocene North America was geographically protected in ways that Oligocene Europe and Africa were not, and it already had substantial exchanges with Asia before and was a big continent with diverse biomes in its own right. It was not nearly as isolated as Africa, South America, and Australia were.
Photosynthesis is the making of food by plants
In the oceans, the Miocene warm period meant expanding reefs, and tropical conditions again visited high latitudes, but not to the early Eocene’s extent. Corals, mollusks, , and all expanded and diversified in the warm period. Also, the first appearance of the closest thing to marine forests was in the Miocene, when developed about 20 mya. Kelp forest denizens such as and the ancestors of also appeared in the Miocene. Seals are closely related to bears and otters, from . Whales radiated in the warm Miocene oceans, and was not far behind. The first appeared in the Miocene, and they specialized in eating polar krill. They were the last whales hunted nearly to extinction by humans, after . Rorquals were fast swimmers and until whaling became industrialized.
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