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Protein Synthesis (book) Flashcards | Quizlet

Together, the evidence was convincing. “What all of this was saying was that we were getting a totally unprecedented mechanism for ribosome-mediated protein synthesis,” Weissman says. “Every other time that people have seen the ribosome make or extend proteins, it's been a messenger RNA that's responsible for bringing the tRNA to read out the genetic code, and you need a large and a small subunit. Here we had synthesis with no messenger RNA and no small subunit. And a protein, Rqc2, was responsible for recognizing and recruiting these specific tRNAs.”

They are molecular machines responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of proteins

“This is a mode of protein synthesis that we've missed for 50 years. It's totally unprecedented,” says Jonathan Weissman, an HHMI investigator at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Weissman co-led the new study with , also at UCSF, and , whose lab is at Stanford University. Learning more about how and when cells add amino acids to the ends of stalled peptides could lead to new insights about neurodegeneration, which can occur when protein quality control measures fail. The scientists published their findings January 2, 2015, in the journal .

5 steps in protein synthesis ..

During the initial stage of protein synthesis in all cells, a ribosome ..

“We initially just kind of scratched our heads. It wasn't clear to us why the A site would be occupied by a tRNA, or even how,” Frost says. The team wondered about the identity of the tRNAs: Could any of the cell's tRNAs enter the A site after it had been separated from the genetic message and the rest of the ribosome? Or did specific tRNAs arrive with specific amino acids? Collaborating with Alan Lambowitz at the University of Texas, Austin, they found that only tRNAs carrying the amino acids alanine or threonine were present in the complex.

New technology and better computational techniques allowed the team to refine its images, until it became clear that there was indeed a tRNA molecule sitting in that cavity, which is known as the ribosome's A site.“That was very strange because we thought all protein synthesis had ended. The small subunit had gone away; the mRNA had gone away. We thought the ribosome was completely in destruction mode. So why was it bringing in a tRNA with an amino acid ready to be added on to the nascent chain?” Weissman says.

Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis - OpenStax CNX

Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis ..

It is thought to beinvolved in initiation of translation by helping the mRNA bind to the ribosome(16S rRNA), thus it can be called the ribosomal binding site (see also ).

The scientists don't know the CAT tails' function yet, but they have some ideas. They have evidence that suggests that CAT tails may trigger a stress response in the cell. A CAT tail might tag an incomplete peptide as a target that should be destroyed. It might also signal that although synthesis has stalled, the ribosome's basic machinery is intact, and that ribosome should be put back into service. Weissman, Frost, and Brandman intend to follow up on all these possibilities as they continue to investigate the details of how CAT tails are synthesized. Because defects in the ribosomal quality control system have been shown to cause neurodegeneration in humans and animals, another high priority is to investigate the potential link between CAT tails and disease.

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms
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Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

The new research has uncovered a new mechanism by which ribosomes can synthesize proteins. The studies show that a protein involved in the cell's ribosome quality control system mediates the elongation of peptides that become stalled during protein sysnthesis. Surprisingly, it does this in the absence of both messenger RNA and the ribosome's small, message-reading subunit.

Ribosomes Function | Plant Cell Organelles

The ribosome is a large molecular complex of RNA and protein. When eukaryotic ribosomes are isolated from cell extracts, two different fractions are obtained, representing two subunits. The smaller 40S subunit binds the messenger RNA that constitutes the protein's genetic blueprint, as well as the transfer RNA that carries each specific amino acid to be added to the growing chainlike protein molecule. The larger 60S subunit catalyzes the formation of the bond between each amino acid and the growing protein chain.

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