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Microwave assisted organic synthesis
The present paper describes studies on the synthesis of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, and of structurally related derivatives. First, the influence of the solvent has been investigated in the microwave-assisted synthesis of the drug, resulting in a yield improvement and a cleaner reaction. Second, a two-step reaction is described to synthesize selectively and in high yields phenytoin. The first step consists in microwave activation of the reaction of benzil with thiourea, the second step includes the conversion of the resulting 2-thiohydantoin to phenytoin using hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, microwave activation is a very convenient method for the synthesis of 3-alkylated phenytoin derivatives, resulting in a much more selective method than the previously reported procedure using alkylating agents.
N2 - Electrochemical capacitors (ECs), also known as pseudocapacitors or supercapacitors (SCs), is receiving great attention for its potential applications in electric and hybrid electric vehicles because of their ability to store energy, alongside with the advantage of delivering the stored energy much more rapidly than batteries, namely power density. To become primary devices for power supply, supercapacitors must be developed further to improve their ability to deliver high energy and power simultaneously. In this concern, a lot of effort is devoted to the investigation of pseudocapacitive transition-metal-based oxides/hydroxides such as ruthenium oxide, manganese oxide, cobalt oxide, nickel oxide, cobalt hydroxide, nickel hydroxide, and mixed metal oxides/hydroxides such as nickel cobaltite and nickel-cobalt oxy-hydroxides. This is mainly due to the fact that they can produce much higher specific capacitances than typical carbon-based electric double-layer capacitors and electronically conducting polymers. This review presents supercapacitor performance data of metal oxide thin film electrodes by microwave-assisted as an inexpensive, quick and versatile technique. Supercapacitors have established the specific capacitance (Cs) principles, therefore, it is likely that metal oxide films will continue to play a major role in supercapacitor technology and are expected to considerably increase the capabilities of these devices in near future.
Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Imidazoles - A Review
Copper nitrate and coffee powder extract taken in 1:3 ratio were subjected to microwave heating at 540 W for 7–8 min which produced a brownish-black precipitate at the end. The precipitate was centrifuged, filtered and then dried in hot air oven for 4–5 h.
AB - The influence of microwave synthesis conditions (time, temperature) and aging of clear solutions on the size, morphology, iron content, and aggregation of nanocrystalline particles were studied for iron silicalite-1 (FeS-1). The compound crystallized from a starting clear solution (10TEOS:0.2FeCl 3:3TPAOH:245H2O) using one- and two-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal syntheses. The smallest round FeS-1 intergrown crystals with a mean diameter of 300 nm composed of 40 nm particles were obtained by two-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal syntheses. The study of iron local structure in FeS-1 by using UV-Vis and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of framework and extra-framework iron species. A reaction of N2O decomposition to N2 and O2 was used as a test to confirm higher catalytic activity of smaller crystallite size.
Review of Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Benzo …
There various methods adopted in synthetic organic chemistry including microwave assisted synthesis, sonochemistry and green chemistry. Applications of all microwaves in the synthesis of chemical moieties which are biologically active have been discussed with a short briefing of advantages of these techniques over the conventional approaches.
To overcome all these, the researchers are always working on discovering alternatives which led to the development of novel approaches in organic synthesis like microwave assisted synthesis, sonochemistry, green chemistry [60-65] and other procedures. Though all these techniques doesn‟t assure of being advantageous over the conventional methods, they are safer to prefer.
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Microwave-Assisted Synthesis: General Concepts | …
Oxides of copper have been investigated for decades due to their unique semiconductor and optical properties. The review of literature revealed that very few reports are available on the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using microorganisms and plant extracts. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) using tea leaf and coffee powder extracts under microwave irradiations. The synthesis was carried out by irradiating metal salt and the extracts of tea and coffee in 1:3 ratio in a microwave at 540 W for 7–8 min. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, UV–visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was tested against six human pathogenic microbes. It was interesting to find that these nanoparticles possess remarkable antibacterial activity against two human pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, the use of environmentally benign materials for the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles offers numerous benefits of eco-friendliness and compatibility for pharmaceutical and other biomedical applications.
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis: General Concepts
N2 - As a relatively new source of processing energy, microwave energy offers many compelling advantages in materials processing over conventional heat sources. These advantages include greater flexibility, greater speed and energy savings, improved product quality and properties, and synthesis of new materials that cannot be produced by other heating methods. Studies of microwave processing of polymeric materials in the early 1960s led to a successful industrial application in the rubber industry. Since the mid-1980's, there has been a great deal of interest in microwave processing of polymeric materials worldwide. The discipline can be categorized in two major fields: microwave-assisted polymer physics (MAPP) and microwave assisted polymer chemistry (MAPC). This paper offers an overview of the state-of-the-art research on the field of MAPC, including polymer processing (curing of thermosets, processing of thermoplastics, and joining), polymer synthesis, plasma modification of polymer surfaces, plasma polymerization, polymer degradation, and production of nanomaterials. Most of these studies have focused on laboratory-scale, exploratory efforts. Challenges and possible future directions for the commercialization of microwave processing technologies are discussed.
Effect of sodium nitrate on microwave-assisted synthesis ..
The influence of microwave synthesis conditions (time, temperature) and aging of clear solutions on the size, morphology, iron content, and aggregation of nanocrystalline particles were studied for iron silicalite-1 (FeS-1). The compound crystallized from a starting clear solution (10TEOS:0.2FeCl 3:3TPAOH:245H2O) using one- and two-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal syntheses. The smallest round FeS-1 intergrown crystals with a mean diameter of 300 nm composed of 40 nm particles were obtained by two-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal syntheses. The study of iron local structure in FeS-1 by using UV-Vis and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of framework and extra-framework iron species. A reaction of N2O decomposition to N2 and O2 was used as a test to confirm higher catalytic activity of smaller crystallite size.
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