Call us toll-free

Quick academic help

Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.

Calculate the price

Pages:

275 Words

$19,50

What Are Photosynthesis and Respiration?

1. 1. Parenchymal cells isolated from the livers of 16-h-fasted rats have a very low ability to utilize glocuse. At 20 mM glucose, there is no net glucose consumption, no stimulation of respiration, and very low rates of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. Cells from fed rats consume glucose more readily. 2. 2. Fructose is utilized very effectively by isolated liver cells from both fed and fasted rats. At 20 mM fructose, respiration is approximately doubled (i.e. there is no Crabtree effect), the rate of gluconeogenesis is high, glycogen accumulates and the glycolytic rate is 10 - 30 times higher than with glucose under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. 3. 3. Gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose + glycogen) from lactate, pyruvate or fructose is not subject to end-product inhibition by glucose at physiological concentrations (5 - 20 mM) in cells from fasted rats. However, glocose has a stimulatory and probably direct effect on glycogen synthesis, thereby directing a greater fraction of the gluconeogenic precursors into glycogen. Liver cells from 40-h-starved rats have largely lost the ability to synthetize glycogen. 4. 4. Glycogins (from fructose) is strongly inhibited by the end-product lactate under aerobic conditions. 5. 5. Lactate, but bit pyruvate, also slightly inhibits glycogen synthesis from high concentrations of fructose. Quinolinate, which blocks gluconeogenesis from lactate (but not from fructose) does not prevent lactate inhibition of glycogen synthesis, but since quinolinate alone stimulates glycogen synthesis the specificity of this inhibitor is doubtful. 6. 6. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolysins from fructose is strongly stimulated (classical Pasteur effect) whereas gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis are blocked. The end-product inhibition of glycolysis by lactate also largely disappears during anaerobis. Since previous experiments have shown that anoxia furthermore stimulates glycogenolysis and abolishes the glycogenolytic control function of glucose, the concept of "generalized Pasteur effect" introduced in order to emphasize the multiplicity of oxygen effects on liver cabohydrate metabolism.

Photosynthesis occurs in plants; cellular respiratory occurs in animal life forms

T1 - Autoregulation of glycolysis, respiration, gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis in isolated parenchymal rat liver cells under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

Photosynthesis and Respiration | Article about Photosynthesis …

Photosynthesis and respiration are reactions that complement each other in the

Oxidative phosphorylation synthesizes the bulk of a cell’s ATP during cellular respiration. A , in the form of a large proton concentration difference across the membrane, provides the energy for the membrane-localized (a molecular machine) to make ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The proton gradient is generated by a series of oxidation-reduction reactions carried out by protein complexes that make up an electron transport chain in the membrane. The term oxidative phosphoryation, then, refers to phosphorylation of ADP to ATP coupled to oxidation-reduction reactions.

We have seen how ATP synthase acts like a proton-powered turbine, and uses the energy released from the down-gradient flow of protons to synthesize ATP. The process of pumping protons across the membrane to generate the proton gradient is called . Chemiosmosis is driven by the flow of electrons down the electron transport chain, a series of protein complexes in the membrane that forms an electron bucket brigade. Each of these protein complexes accepts and passes on electrons down the chain, and pumps a proton across the membrane for each electron it passes on. Ultimately, the last complex in the electron transport chain passes the electrons to molecular oxygen (O2) to make water, in the case of aerobic respiration.

Looking for Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis occurs in plants; cellular respiratory occurs in animal life forms

N2 - 1. 1. Parenchymal cells isolated from the livers of 16-h-fasted rats have a very low ability to utilize glocuse. At 20 mM glucose, there is no net glucose consumption, no stimulation of respiration, and very low rates of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. Cells from fed rats consume glucose more readily. 2. 2. Fructose is utilized very effectively by isolated liver cells from both fed and fasted rats. At 20 mM fructose, respiration is approximately doubled (i.e. there is no Crabtree effect), the rate of gluconeogenesis is high, glycogen accumulates and the glycolytic rate is 10 - 30 times higher than with glucose under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. 3. 3. Gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose + glycogen) from lactate, pyruvate or fructose is not subject to end-product inhibition by glucose at physiological concentrations (5 - 20 mM) in cells from fasted rats. However, glocose has a stimulatory and probably direct effect on glycogen synthesis, thereby directing a greater fraction of the gluconeogenic precursors into glycogen. Liver cells from 40-h-starved rats have largely lost the ability to synthetize glycogen. 4. 4. Glycogins (from fructose) is strongly inhibited by the end-product lactate under aerobic conditions. 5. 5. Lactate, but bit pyruvate, also slightly inhibits glycogen synthesis from high concentrations of fructose. Quinolinate, which blocks gluconeogenesis from lactate (but not from fructose) does not prevent lactate inhibition of glycogen synthesis, but since quinolinate alone stimulates glycogen synthesis the specificity of this inhibitor is doubtful. 6. 6. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolysins from fructose is strongly stimulated (classical Pasteur effect) whereas gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis are blocked. The end-product inhibition of glycolysis by lactate also largely disappears during anaerobis. Since previous experiments have shown that anoxia furthermore stimulates glycogenolysis and abolishes the glycogenolytic control function of glucose, the concept of "generalized Pasteur effect" introduced in order to emphasize the multiplicity of oxygen effects on liver cabohydrate metabolism.

Only plants can photosynthesize, but both plants and animals depend on respiration to release the chemical potential energy originally captured through photosynthesis.

In terms of the gas taken in and the gas given out, photosynthesis is the opposite of respiration.
Order now
  • UNMATCHED QUALITY

    As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.

  • STRICT PRIVACY

    Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.

  • COMPLETE ORIGINALITY

    We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.

  • ON-TIME DELIVERY

    We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.

  • FREE CORRECTIONS

    Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.

  • 24/7 SUPPORT

    We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.

Order now

Find out information about Photosynthesis and Respiration

The earliest cells, prokaryotes living in an early Earth devoid of free oxygen, used various alternative electron acceptors to carry on anaerobic cellular respiration. After cyanobacteria invented oxygenic photosynthesis and pumped oxygen gas into the oceans and atmosphere, bacteria that adapted their electron transport chains to exploit oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor gained higher energy yield and thus a competitive advantage. One line of aerobic bacteria took up an endosymbiotic relationship within a larger host cell, providing ATP in exchange for organic molecules. The endosymbiont was the evolutionary ancestor of mitochondria. This endosymbiosis must have occurred in the ancestor of all eukaryotes, because all existing eukaryotes have mitochondria (Martin and Mentel, 2010). The evidence for the endosymbiont origin of mitochondria can be found in:

Explanation of Photosynthesis and Respiration

The figure illustrates how closely photosynthesis and respiration are linked. As you can see, thanks to these two life-sustaining processes, plants and animals depend on each other to survive.

What is the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration…

AB - 1. 1. Parenchymal cells isolated from the livers of 16-h-fasted rats have a very low ability to utilize glocuse. At 20 mM glucose, there is no net glucose consumption, no stimulation of respiration, and very low rates of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. Cells from fed rats consume glucose more readily. 2. 2. Fructose is utilized very effectively by isolated liver cells from both fed and fasted rats. At 20 mM fructose, respiration is approximately doubled (i.e. there is no Crabtree effect), the rate of gluconeogenesis is high, glycogen accumulates and the glycolytic rate is 10 - 30 times higher than with glucose under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. 3. 3. Gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose + glycogen) from lactate, pyruvate or fructose is not subject to end-product inhibition by glucose at physiological concentrations (5 - 20 mM) in cells from fasted rats. However, glocose has a stimulatory and probably direct effect on glycogen synthesis, thereby directing a greater fraction of the gluconeogenic precursors into glycogen. Liver cells from 40-h-starved rats have largely lost the ability to synthetize glycogen. 4. 4. Glycogins (from fructose) is strongly inhibited by the end-product lactate under aerobic conditions. 5. 5. Lactate, but bit pyruvate, also slightly inhibits glycogen synthesis from high concentrations of fructose. Quinolinate, which blocks gluconeogenesis from lactate (but not from fructose) does not prevent lactate inhibition of glycogen synthesis, but since quinolinate alone stimulates glycogen synthesis the specificity of this inhibitor is doubtful. 6. 6. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolysins from fructose is strongly stimulated (classical Pasteur effect) whereas gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis are blocked. The end-product inhibition of glycolysis by lactate also largely disappears during anaerobis. Since previous experiments have shown that anoxia furthermore stimulates glycogenolysis and abolishes the glycogenolytic control function of glucose, the concept of "generalized Pasteur effect" introduced in order to emphasize the multiplicity of oxygen effects on liver cabohydrate metabolism.

Order now
  • You submit your order instructions

  • We assign an appropriate expert

  • The expert takes care of your task

  • We send it to you upon completion

Order now
  • 37 684

    Delivered orders

  • 763

    Professional writers

  • 311

    Writers online

  • 4.8/5

    Average quality score

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order