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Effect of starvation on tRNA synthesis, ..

Mandal D, Köhrer C, Su D et al. (2010) Agmatidine, a modified cytidine in the anticodon of archaeal tRNA(Ile), base pairs with adenosine but not with guanosine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107: 2872–2877.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

To elucidate the relationship between these processes in the regulation of tRNA production, the relative tRNA distribution was measured using a microarray specifically designed for tRNA.

The mcm 5 Um Sec-tRNA (Ser)Sec is active in the synthesis of both ..

Our results confirm that transcription and processing contribute significantly to the distribution of the 35 tRNA species in B.

tRNA is synthesized from tRNA gene by RNA polymerase and matured through processing, splicing, CCA addition and posttranscriptional modification.

Transfer (tRNA) is primarily synthesized from tRNA gene through transcription by and becomes the mature form via several steps: processing, splicing, CCA addition and posttranscriptional modification. Primary transcripts of tRNA genes contain 5′ and 3′ extra sequences, which are removed by a set of responsible nucleases, and introns in some cases, which are spliced out by a specific . The resultant two fragments are joined by . The CCA sequences present at 3′-termini of all mature tRNAs are not encoded in tRNA genes in some species and posttranscriptionally added by a CCA-adding enzyme. All mature tRNA molecules contain modified nucleotides made by modification enzymes and which are considered to be involved in stabilization of tRNA structure, in decoding properties and in correct processing. The concentration of individual tRNA molecules is controlled to maintain cellular functions.

Protein Synthesis and the Lean, Mean Ribosome …

Li Z and Deutscher MP (1996) Maturation pathways for E. coli tRNA precursors: a random multienzyme process in vivo. Cell 86: 503–512.

Pan H, Agarwalla S, Moustakas DT, Finer‐Moore J and Stroud RM (2003) Structure of tRNA pseudouridine synthase TruB and its RNA complex: RNA recognition through a combination of rigid docking and induced fit. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 100: 12648–12653.

Ohira T and Suzuki T (2011) Retrograde nuclear import of tRNA precursors is required for modified base biogenesis in yeast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108: 10502–10507.

Filipowicz W and Shatkin AJ (1983) Origin of splice junction phosphate in tRNAs processed by HeLa cell extract. Cell 32: 547–557.
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Regulation of Protein Synthesis - Emory University

The relative amounts of tRNA are regulated by several factors; the copy number of the tRNA gene, transcriptional activity aforementioned and tRNA degradation by a number of nucleases.

Regulation of Protein Synthesis

Synthesis of tRNA is regulated by promoter activity and specific factors (ppGpp and/or pppGpp in prokaryotes and Maf1 in eukaryotes) depending on the nutrient condition of the cells.

Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis | Boundless Biology

Aside from transcription, the final tRNA distribution appears to be derived from a balance between processing and precursor degradation activities.">

Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis

tRNA possesses a variety of modified nucleotides which are introduced by modification enzymes during or after the processing, splicing and transport steps.

An Introduction to Molecular Biology/Protein synthesis

Kirino Y, Yasukawa T, Ohta S et al. (2004) Codon‐specific translational defect caused by a wobble modification deficiency in mutant tRNA from a human mitochondrial disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101: 15070–15075.

Regulation of ribosome synthesis hinges on ..

Mature tRNA degradation occurs with little specificity for individual tRNA species and on the hour time-scale, indicating that degradation of mature tRNA plays only a minor role in the regulation of tRNA distribution.

Regulation of protein synthesis - SlideShare

Several modifications in tRNA play important roles in the translation process, such as enhancement, expansion, restriction and/or alteration of codon–anticodon interactions, stabilization of tRNA structure, recognition by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, etc.

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