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Redox economy in organic synthesis.
Sources of Drugs: Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs;
Classification of Drugs: Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs; Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutacease, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae; Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs: Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents, Plant hormones and their applications, Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. Quality Control of Crude Drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties. Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs: Their isolation, classification and properties.
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings:
CARBOHYDRATES and derived products: agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabagol, pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacanth; Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat; RESINS: Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony, podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger;
TANNINS: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and myrobalan;
VOLATILE OILS: General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel, Lemon grass, Citronella, Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria, Sandal wood; Phytochemical Screening: Preparation of extracts, Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts; FIBERS: Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon, glass-wool, polyester and asbestos.
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs:
GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS: Saponins : Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega. Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia, Anthraquinone cathartics: Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara, Others: Psoralea, Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS: Pyridine-piperidine: Tobacco, areca and lobelia. Tropane: Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania. Quinoline and Isoquinoline: Cinchona, ipecac, opium. Indole: Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma. Imidazole: Pilocarpus. Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi. Alkaloidal Amine: Ephedra and colchicum. Glycoalkaloid: Solanum. Purines: Coffee, tea and cola. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin. Studies of Traditional Drugs: Common vernacular names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla, Kantkari, Satavari, Tylophora, Bhilawa, Kalijiri, Bach, Rasna, Punamava, Chitrack, Apamarg, Gokhru, Shankhapushpi, Brahmi, Adusa, Atjuna, Ashoka, Methi, Lahsun, Palash, Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha and Neem. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas, Chumas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis: Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Terpenes: monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenoids. Carotenoids: a-carotenoids, ß-carotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal importance. Glycosides: Digitoxin, digoxin, hecogenin, sennosides, diosgenin and sarasapogenin. Alkaloids: Atropine and related compounds, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Papaverine, Ephedrine, Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. Lignans, quassanoids and flavonoids. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy: A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such as quinine, calcium sennosides, podophyllotoxin, diosgenin, solasodine, and tropane alkaloids. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil, mentha oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to diosgenin (disocorea), taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis, tropane alkaloid containing plants, Papain, cinchona, Ipecac, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, Valerian, Rauwolfia and plants containing laxatives. Plant bitters and sweeteners. Plant Tissue Culture: Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Marine pharmacognosy: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources. Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Herbs as health foods. Herbal cosmetics. Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs, WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal drugs.
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INORGANIC CHEMISTRY : Part B
In this backdrop, the symposium plans to bring together the researchers in academia and industry to cover the following broad spectrum of topics encompassing heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, organocatalysis and biocatalysis.
Over 160 chiral vicinal bromochlorinated natural products have been identified; however, a lack of synthetic methods for the selective incorporation of halogens into organic molecules has hindered their synthesis. Here we disclose the first total synthesis and structural confirmation of isoplocamenone and plocamenone, as well as the first selective and scalable synthesis of the preclinical anticancer natural product halomon. The synthesis of these inter-halogenated compounds has been enabled by our recently developed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective dihalogenation reaction.
Pyridine synthesis - Organic Chemistry Portal
Herein we describe a highly chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective bromochlorination reaction of allylic alcohols, employing readily available halogen sources and a simple Schiff base as the chiral catalyst. The application of this interhalogenation reaction to a variety of substrates, the rapid enantioselective synthesis of a bromochlorinated natural product, and preliminary extension of this chemistry to dibromination and dichlorination are reported.
The first total synthesis of the highly complex and potent anticancer agent haouamine A is reported through an eight-step sequence. Brevity of the sequence and complete control of chemo-, position-, and stereoselectivity (both planar and axial chirality) were possible through the invention of chemistry specifically tailored for the problems at hand, namely a cascade annulation proceeding via a hitherto unknown chemical entity for the indeno-tetrahydropyridine ring system as well as a pyrone-assisted stitching of the daunting bent-aromatic ring.
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Synthesis of imidazoles - Organic Chemistry Portal
“Biochemistry may be described as the study of living systems, using the methods of chemistry and physics. Life is a complex of interrelated chemical reactions. Even the structural features on which taxonomic classifications are mainly based are the products of chemical reactions. In any case, structure, since it survives nearly intact when a cell or organism dies, is clearly not life, although a high degree of structure is probably required for life. Disruption of the interrelated chemical activities of an organism is death; by the same token, these chemical activities, collectively, are life.”
Redox Economy in Organic Synthesis
While alkyl halides are valuable intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry, their use as bioactive motifs in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry is rare in comparison. This is likely attributable to the common misconception that these compounds are merely non-specific alkylators in biological systems. A number of chlorinated compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as a growing number of halogenated marine natural products showing unique bioactivity, illustrate the role that chiral alkyl halides can play in drug discovery. Through a series of case studies, we demonstrate in this review that these motifs can indeed be stable under physiological conditions, and that halogenation can enhance bioactivity through both steric and electronic effects. Our hope is that, by placing such compounds in the minds of the chemical community, they may gain more traction in drug discovery and inspire more synthetic chemists to develop methods for selective halogenation.
Principles for designing economical multistep organic synthesis
The Catalysis Society of India (CSI) was formally founded in March 1973 at Varanasi with Prof. S.K. Bhattacharyya as the president and Prof. J.C. Kuriacose as the secretary. The main mandates of the CSI are to encourage catalysis research in India, to organize professional meetings between researchers, to enhance mutual interactions and to encourage cooperation between industry and academia. The growth of the membership of the CSI is a measure of the growth of catalysis research activity in the country. The present membership of the society is more than 750 compared to 75 in 1974. At the time of the founding of the CSI, the major centers of research in catalysis were just a handful, the IITs (Madras and Kharagpur), PDIL (Sindhri), IIP (Dehradun) and IPCL/RIL (Vadodara). Catalysis research activity has spread to many more organizations during the past 42 years. During the last three decades, the catalysis community in India has made significant strides both in applied and fundamental research. Many catalysts and processes has been developed and commercialized, notably by IIP, PDIL, IPCL/RIL, NCL, IICT and ACC in petroleum refining, petrochemicals manufacture, fertilizers production and fine chemicals syntheses. In basic research also, members of the CSI have made significant discoveries in catalysis, resulting in publications in prestigious journals such as Nature, Science, Angew Chem and JACS.
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