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Topsoil is the top layer of the earth's surface. Topsoil is high in organic matter, which makes it very easy to till and fertilize ground for growing plants. Topsoil was designed to bring all the ingredients for the recipe of plant life together. If you’re planning on growing lawn or vegetables or just to level some land, then topsoil is the product that you should use.
You can also add topsoil to existing lawn and the best way to add topsoil to your lawn without damaging your grass is to top-dress the lawn with topsoil that matches the lawn's native topsoil. Adding thick layers of soil without allowing grass time to adjust, however, kills the grass, even if it is not buried completely by the soil. Adding a thin layer of topsoil once every several months to the lawn is the best technique.
The soil is composed of many different sized particles. With this simple experiment you can separate the main components of the soil and evaluate their proportions.
1 - Go into a field an collect a sample of soil. Put it in a jar of water. Stir it well and let it settle. Observe and describe the different layers of materials.
2 - In water, particles settle more quickly the bigger they are. It is possible to use this property to determine the amount of each component of the soil. Put 3 parts water and 1 part of soil in the container (try 1 cup soil and three cups of water in a quart jar); shake the container for 5 minutes and let the material set. With reference to the figure 1, after 40 seconds measure the thickness of sediment. Call this A; after 30 minutes measure again and call this B; after 24 hours measure C. Now, by subtraction, you can determine the thickness of the main layers: C-B = layer of clay, B-A = layer of silt, A = layer of gravel and sand. Using a sieve with 2 mm holes (less than 1/8 inches), you can separate the gravel from the sand and determine their ratio. On the basis of these data, calculate the content (%) of each component of the soil sample.
3 - Repeat the same experiment with soil collected in other places or that have a different geological origin (i.e: meadow, wood, river bank) or anyplace the soil has a different consistency or texture (i.e: muddy, sandy). Describe the composition of each soil and try to explain the differences. You can also apply this technique to evaluate the composition of the soil for a potted plant, and correct it. Example: if water doesn't drain well, would more sand help? If it needs to hold water longer would clay or organic matter be helpful?
4 - With a microscope, measure the size of the particles. With a clock, measure the time to drop to the bottom of a jar of water. time of the particles in water as a verses their size. Then graph with the Y-axis for the size of the particle and X-axis the time to fall.
Soil and Environment Activities
Soil description and classification
Internet keywords: soil sedimentation test.
Photosynthesis- Ideas for Teaching, Resources for …
Drosophila, best known as vinegar fly or fruit fly, is the little fly you see flyingaround vinegar and on fruit during the fall. Why raise vinegar flies? To observe theirdevelopment, to observe the chromosomes of their salivary glands during division, toperform experiments on genetics, finally as food for amphibians that have just completedtheir metamorphosis. In this case it is necessary to breed a species that can't fly. Youcan obtain individuals with vestigial wings (wings which are not fully developed)at a university Biology or natural sciences department.
Culture medium recipe for drosophila: water 83 ml, agar-agar 0.8 g, sugar 5 g, brewer'syeast 10 g, alcohol 1.3 ml, nipagin
0.25 g. Nipagin M is used as a preservative in foods and cosmetics, like agar-agar, youcan buy it at the stores that sell science items for laboratories. Mix the yeast and thesugar, add agar-agar and water and simmer for 3 minutes. Turn off the heat. Dissolve thenipagin in alcohol and add to the rest when it has stopped smoking. Mix and let it set.
You can find other recipes at the following websites:
Aquick and simple introduction to Drosophila melanogaster
Fruit Flies - Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila Culture (how to culture flightless fruit flies)
Observing the Development of Drosophila in Apple Juice Agar
Drosophila Genetics Lab I
A bibliography for an insect field biology course
La drosophile (in French)
Internet keywords: drosophila culture -cells, wingless fruit flies vinegar fly.
Lm Berea has a reputation for the highest shade tolerance out of all the species. LM is also the most popular choice for gardens in South Africa because of its prominent darker green colour which does not easily turn yellow in continuous wet and rainy conditions when there is not much sun for photosynthesis.
It grows best in shady and semi-shade conditions and performs well in full sun as well. LM grass is commonly known as "shade grass". When planted in full sun, it might need a little more water on extremely hot days.
LM grass has a creeping growth habit that is much less invasive than Kikuyu. It will not invade your flower beds and paving aggressively as Kikuyu does and needs to be trimmed less often in such places. It also does not grow very tall when not cut often but rather forms a thick carpet. LM grass is relatively heat tolerant and can recover from drought and heat stress in a short time.
Photosynthesis for Kids - Primary Theme Park
Today in North Georgia I saw one of the weirdest sights I’ve ever seen. The day started out sunny with blue skies. Temps by mid-morning around 50 degrees or so. During the noontime hour they were spraying the skies with the trails fairly heavily. Coming home from an outing at 4:30pm the sun became covered over with the horrible opaque mess that we are all now too familiar with seeing- BUT to either side of the glowing mass behind the shroud of particulates appeared a rainbow looking sundog equidistant from both the left(southward)and the right(northward)of the center point of the sun. It felt to me quite a bit colder than it had been (like the refrigerator door opening feeling the cooler air sensation we have all come to recognize-at least for those of us who are awake to what is happening), and I believe they were likely spraying the chemicals which cause the artificial endothermic reaction since today they have now abruptly changed the weather forecast for the next week from unusually warm for the Christmas week to a potentially turbulent rain event Dec. 23rd then possibly changing over to snow Dec. 24th. Voila!!.. A White Christmas for North Georgia. Let’s see what happens here folks!
Nutrient rich water is delivered directly to the plants root, a process that uses far less water than outdoor grown crops per kg.Our plants are grown in an inert growing medium, rock wool, meaning there is no depletion of soil nutrients or any soil erosion.Protected cropping yields 60 times more product than outdoor-grown crop and utilises far less water per kg. The higher yields and different growing techniques means far less land is required for growing. And as we plant in the same area each season, there’s no need to clear more land to find nutrients rich soil or let fields “rest” for a season.Plants need CO2 to grow in the process of photosynthesis.
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Photosynthesis Educational Videos | WatchKnowLearn
Two marine dinoflagellates, Hulburt and Stein, demonstrate active uptake of carbon dioxide (or carbonic acid), but not bicarbonate. Because this mechanism is fundamentally limited in its effectiveness, it has been speculated that these organisms may be CO2-limited in their natural environment. These species would likely be stressed considerably if the pH of a reef aquarium containing them were raised substantially. On the other hand, three marine bloom-forming (red tide) dinoflagellates, , and , have been shown to take up bicarbonate directly, with bicarbonate accounting for approximately 80% of the carbon dioxide they use in photosynthesis. It is believed that these dinoflagellates are not carbon limited in photosynthesis due to their efficient direct bicarbonate uptake mechanisms, so they may not be overly stressed (by this mechanism) by raising the pH to levels achievable in a reef aquarium.
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